Metallic vanadium is not found in nature, but is known to exist in about 65 different minerals. Economically significant examples include patronite (VS4), vanadinite (Pb5(VO4)3Cl), and carnotite (K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O). Much of the world's vanadium production is sourced from vanadium-bearing magnetite found in ultramafic gabbro bodies. Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia. In 2007 these three countries mined more than 95 % of the 58,600 tonnes of produced vanadium.
Vanadium is also present in bauxite and in fossil fuel deposits such as crude oil, coal, oil shale and tar sands. In crude oil, concentrations up to 1200 ppm have been reported. When such oil products are burned, the traces of vanadium may initiate corrosion in motors and boilers. An estimated 110,000 tonnes of vanadium per year are released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. Vanadium has also been detected spectroscopically in light from the Sun and some other stars.
This element is generally found in ores with the other platinum group metals in the Ural Mountains and in North and South America. Small but commercially important quantities are also found in pentlandite(iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8. ) extracted from Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and in pyroxenite deposits in South Africa. The native ruthenium is very rare mineral (Ir replaces part of Ru in its structure).
- ↑ "mineralogical data about Patrónite". mindata.org. Retrieved on 2009-01-19.
- ↑ Magyar, Michael J.. "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008: Vanadium". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2009-01-15.
- ↑ Pearson, C. D.; Green J. B. (1993). "Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions". Energy Fuels 7: 338. doi:10.1021/ef00039a001.
- ↑ Anke, Manfred (2004). "Vanadium - An element both essential and toxic to plants, animals and humans?". Anal. Real Acad. Nac. Farm. 70: 961.
- ↑ Cowley, C. R.; Elste, G. H.; Urbanski, J. L. (1978). "Vanadium abundances in early A stars". Astronomical Society of the Pacific 90: 536. doi:10.1086/130379. Bibcode: 1978PASP...90..536C.
- ↑ George, Micheal W.. "2006 Minerals Yearbook: Platinum-Group Metals". United States Geological Survey USGS. Retrieved on 2008-09-16.
- ↑ "Comodity Report: Platinum-Group Metals". United States Geological Survey USGS. Retrieved on 2008-09-16.
- ↑ Emsley, J. (2003). "Ruthenium". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 368–370201. ISBN 0198503407.