Evolved star fusion shells

Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell

Successive fusion is a fusion of fusioning atom which might be activated.

Successive fusion scenarioEdit

In the same place where Sulfur was found, Copper was found also. Copper might be produced through Successive sulfur fusion after oxygen fusion.

Color of CopperEdit

Copper just above its melting point

Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color.

Copper has a reddish, orangish, or brownish color because a thin layer of tarnish (including oxides) gradually forms on its surface when gases (especially oxygen) in the air react with it. But pure copper, when fresh, is actually a pinkish or peachy metal. Copper, caesium and gold are the only three elemental metals with a natural color other than gray or silver.[1] The usual gray color of metals depends on their "electron sea" that is capable of absorbing and re-emitting photons over a wide range of frequencies. Copper has its characteristic color because of its unique band structure. By Madelung's rule the 4s subshell should be filled before electrons are placed in the 3d subshell but copper is an exception to the rule with only one electron in the 4s subshell instead of two. The energy of a photon of blue or violet light is sufficient for a d band electron to absorb it and transition to the half-full s band. Thus the light reflected by copper is missing some blue/violet components and appears red. This phenomenon is shared with gold which has a corresponding 5s/4d structure.[2] In its liquefied state, a pure copper surface without ambient light appears somewhat greenish, a characteristic shared with gold. When liquid copper is in bright ambient light, it retains some of its pinkish luster. When copper is burnt in oxygen it gives off a black oxide.

Fusion scenario of Iron generation Edit

In the same place where Sulfur and Copper was found, Iron was found also. To explain this Iron with fusion scenario is very very hard, because atomic number of Iron is 26 and weight number is 56 instead of 52. Concept of Baryojet might be deduced.

Nitrogen pair which are produced by baryojet from Oxygen jet might give Silicon, or Aluminium which is abundant on the crust of earth. Successive fusion of Aluminium might give Iron which resembles the Afterglow for candidate gavitational jet.

Isotopes of AluminiumEdit

Main article: isotopes of aluminium

Aluminium has nine isotopes, whose mass numbers range from 23 to 30. Only 27Al (stable isotope) and 26Al (radioactive isotope, t1/2 = 7.2×105 y) occur naturally; however, 27Al has a natural abundance above 99.9%. 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic-ray protons. Aluminium isotopes have found practical application in dating marine sediments, manganese nodules, glacial ice, quartz in rock exposures, and meteorites. The ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used to study the role of transport, deposition, sediment storage, burial times, and erosion on 105 to 106 year time scales.[3] Cosmogenic 26Al was first applied in studies of the Moon and meteorites. Meteoroid fragments, after departure from their parent bodies, are exposed to intense cosmic-ray bombardment during their travel through space, causing substantial 26Al production. After falling to Earth, atmospheric shielding protects the meteorite fragments from further 26Al production, and its decay can then be used to determine the meteorite's terrestrial age. Meteorite research has also shown that 26Al was relatively abundant at the time of formation of our planetary system. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.[4]

Natural occurrenceEdit

In the Earth's crust, aluminium is the most abundant (8.3% by weight) metallic element and the third most abundant of all elements (after oxygen and silicon).[5] Because of its strong affinity to oxygen, however, it is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates. Feldspars, the most common group of minerals in the Earth's crust, are aluminosilicates. Native aluminium metal can be found as a minor phase in low oxygen fugacity environments, such as the interiors of certain volcanoes.[6] It also occurs in the minerals beryl, cryolite, garnet, spinel and turquoise.[5]Template:Inote Impurities in Al2O3, such as chromium or cobalt yield the gemstones ruby and sapphire, respectively.Template:Inote Pure Al2O3, known as corundum, is one of the hardest materials known.[5]Template:Inote

Although aluminium is an extremely common and widespread element, the common aluminium minerals are not economic sources of the metal. Almost all metallic aluminium is produced from the ore bauxite (AlOx(OH)3-2x). Bauxite occurs as a weathering product of low iron and silica bedrock in tropical climatic conditions.[7] Large deposits of bauxite occur in Australia, Brazil, Guinea and Jamaica but the primary mining areas for the ore are in Ghana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Russia and Surinam.[8]Template:Inote Smelting of the ore mainly occurs in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Norway, Russia and the United States.Template:Inote Because smelting is an energy-intensive process, regions with excess natural gas supplies (such as the United Arab Emirates) are becoming aluminium refiners.

Occurrence of SiliconEdit

Measured by mass, silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the crust, after oxygen. Pure silicon crystals are very rarely found in nature; they can be found as inclusions with gold and in volcanic exhalations. Silicon is usually found in the form of silicon dioxide (also known as quartz), and other more complex silicate minerals.

Silica occurs in minerals consisting of (practically) pure silicon dioxide in different crystalline forms. Amethyst, agate, quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper, and opal are some of the forms in which silicon dioxide appears. Biogenic silica occurs in the form of diatoms, radiolaria and siliceous sponges.

Silicon also occurs as silicate minerals (various minerals containing silicon, oxygen and one or another metal), for example the feldspar group. These minerals occur in clay, sand and various types of rock such as granite and sandstone. Feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, and mica are a few of the many common silicate mineral groups.

Silicon is a principal component of many meteorites, and also is a component of obsidian and tektites, which are natural forms of glass.


Main article: isotopes of silicon

Silicon has numerous known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable; 32Si is a radioactive isotope produced by cosmic ray spallation of argon. Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 170 years (0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta - emission to 32P (which has a 14.28 day half-life )[9] and then to 32S.

Occurrence of IronEdit


The red appearance of this water is due to ferric ion, Iron(III) or Fe3+, in the rocks.

Iron is the sixth most abundant element in the Universe, formed as the final act of nucleosynthesis, by silicon fusing in massive stars. While it makes up about 5% of the Earth's crust, the Earth's core is believed to consist largely of an iron-nickel alloy constituting 35% of the mass of the Earth as a whole. Iron is consequently the most abundant element on Earth, but only the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust.[10] Most of the iron in the crust is found combined with oxygen as iron oxide minerals such as hematite and magnetite.

About 1 in 20 meteorites consist of the unique iron-nickel minerals taenite (35–80% iron) and kamacite (90–95% iron). Although rare, iron meteorites are the major form of natural metallic iron on the Earth's surface.

The red color of the surface of Mars is thought to derive from an iron oxide-rich regolith.

Isotopes Edit

Main article: Isotopes of iron

Naturally occurring iron consists of four isotopes: 5.845% of radioactive 54Fe (half-life: >3.1×1022 years), 91.754% of stable 56Fe, 2.119% of stable 57Fe and 0.282% of stable 58Fe. 60Fe is an extinct radionuclide of long half-life (1.5 million years).

Much of the past work on measuring the isotopic composition of Fe has centered on determining 60Fe variations due to processes accompanying nucleosynthesis (i.e., meteorite studies) and ore formation. In the last decade however, advances in mass spectrometry technology have allowed the detection and quantification of minute, naturally occurring variations in the ratios of the stable isotopes of iron. Much of this work has been driven by the Earth and planetary science communities, although applications to biological and industrial systems are beginning to emerge.[11]

The most abundant iron isotope 56Fe is of particular interest to nuclear scientists. A common misconception is that this isotope represents the most stable nucleus possible, and that it thus would be impossible to perform fission or fusion on 56Fe and still liberate energy. This is not true, as both 62Ni and 58Fe are more stable, being the most stable nuclei. However, since 56Ni is much more easily produced from lighter nuclei in the alpha process in nuclear reactions in supernovae (see silicon burning process), nickel-56 (14 alpha particles) is the endpoint of fusion chains inside extremely massive stars, since addition of another alpha would result in zinc-60, which requires a great deal more energy. This nickel-56, which has a half-life of about 6 days, is therefore made in quantity in these stars, but soon decays by two successive positron emissions within supernova decay products in the supernova remnant gas cloud, to first radioactive cobalt-56, and then stable iron-56. This last nuclide is therefore common in the universe, relative to other stable metals of approximately the same atomic weight.

In phases of the meteorites Semarkona and Chervony Kut a correlation between the concentration of 60Ni, the daughter product of 60Fe, and the abundance of the stable iron isotopes could be found which is evidence for the existence of 60Fe at the time of formation of the solar system. Possibly the energy released by the decay of 60Fe contributed, together with the energy released by decay of the radionuclide 26Al, to the remelting and differentiation of asteroids after their formation 4.6 billion years ago. The abundance of 60Ni present in extraterrestrial material may also provide further insight into the origin of the solar system and its early history. Of the stable isotopes, only 57Fe has a nuclear spin (−1/2).

Seel alsoEdit


  1. Chambers, William; Chambers, Robert (1884). Chambers's Information for the People. L (5th ed.), W. & R. Chambers. p. 312. ISBN 0665469128, .
  2. M. Razeghi (2006). Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering, Birkhäuser. pp. 154–156. ISBN 0387281525. 
  3. "Cosmogenic Isotopes and Aluminum".
  4. Robert T. Dodd (1986). Thunderstones and Shooting Stars. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-674-89137-6. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Template:Greenwood&Earnshaw2ndTemplate:Inote
  6. "Aluminum Mineral Data". Retrieved on 2008-07-09.
  7. Guilbert, John M. and Carles F. Park (1986). The Geology of Ore Deposits, Freeman. pp. 774–795. ISBN 0-7167-1456-6. 
  8. Emsley, John (2001). "Aluminium". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0198503407, 
  9. "Phosphorus - 32". 
  10. Iron: geological information,, retrieved on 21 May 2008 .
  11. Dauphas, N. & Rouxel, O. 2006. Mass spectrometry and natural variations of iron isotopes. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 25, 515-550

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