In 1976 Amory Lovins coined the term "soft path" to describe an alternative future where efficiency and appropriate renewable energy sources steadily replace a centralized energy system based on fossil and nuclear fuels.
Soft vs HardEdit
As physicist/consultant/lobbyist Amory Lovins describes it, the "hard energy path" (with which the soft path contrasts) is based on the assumption that the more energy we use the better off we are. It involves inefficient liquid-fuel automotive transport, as well as giant, centralized electricity-generating facilities, often burning fossil fuels (e.g., coal or petroleum) or harnessing a nuclear fission reaction (see nuclear power). The hard path is not simply a matter of energy sources, though, because it is greatly augmented and complicated by wastage and loss of electricity and other common, directly usable forms of energy.
The "soft energy path" assumes that energy is but a means to social ends, and is not an end in itself. Soft energy paths involve efficient use of energy, diversity of energy production methods (matched in scale and quality to end uses), and special reliance on co-generation and "soft technologies" (i.e., alternative technology) such as solar energy, wind energy, biofuels, geothermal energy, etc.
Soft energy technologiesEdit
- Main article: Soft energy technologies
Soft energy technologies (appropriate renewables) have five defining characteristics (Lovins, 1977). They (1) rely on renewable energy resources, (2) are diverse and designed for maximum effectiveness in particular circumstances, (3) are flexible and relatively simple to understand, (4) are matched to end-use needs in terms of scale, and (5) are matched to end-use needs in terms of quality.
Residential solar energy technologies are prime examples of soft energy technologies and rapid deployment of simple, energy conserving, residential solar energy technologies is fundamental to a soft energy strategy. Active residential solar technologies use special devices to collect and convert the sun's rays to useful energy and are located near the users they supply. Passive residential solar technologies involve the natural transfer (by radiation, convection and conduction) of solar energy without the use of mechanical devices.
Lovins argued that besides environmental benefits, global political stresses might be reduced by Western nations committing to the soft energy path. In general, soft path impacts are seen to be more "gentle, pleasant and manageable" than hard path impacts. These impacts range from the individual and household level to those affecting the very fabric of society at the national and international level (see Lovins, 1977).
Facts have validated some of Lovins' assertions. While U.S. federal commitments in the energy field have varied and no ongoing, official resolve to adhere to the soft energy path has been made at the national level, in the Winter 1998 edition of the Whole Earth Catalog, Amory Lovins pointed out that choices made by industry and citizens had resulted in a national energy use curve just slightly lower than the levels he had projected for the U.S. 'soft energy path' in 1976. In this sense, the success of the soft energy path for the country exceeded expectation, and there has been a renewed interest in the soft energy path due to the recent popularization of "peak oil" theories.
At the same time, proponents of renewable energy sources complain that the fraction of energy derived from renewable sources has declined slightly in a number of nations (though grown slightly in others) if, say, the years 1985 and 1994 are compared. Still, some proponents put much hope in the commercial emergence of hydrogen fuel cells, which appear to have possibilities as an efficient energy-storage method. The utilization of both wind and solar power is generally predicted to grow significantly, and is already doing so in many regions. Further, the European Commission of 1997 predicted a significant growth in all of the main sources of renewable electricity generation except hydro-electric by 2010 (see renewable energy development).
One criticism leveled at decentralized energy technologies is that, generally, the large, centralized methods produce energy much more efficiently than small, distributed plants. The energy decentralists counter that this is a generalization, that new developments are in the works, and even today there are sometimes exceptions (see the discussion in the renewable energy article). In Lovins' analysis, large-scale electricity production facilities have an important place, but it is a place that they were already filling by the mid-1970s. At that time, Lovins felt that more centralized, large-scale "conventional" energy production facilities would not generally be needed .
Transitional strategy Edit
The following transitional strategy to a soft energy path has been proposed:
- Double the efficiency of oil utilization, mainly through improved vehicle design (the development of improved hybrid cars, ultralight designs, and streamlined large transport vehicles).
- Apply creative business models which focus on certain advanced technologies and lightweight materials.
- Substitute 25% of U.S. oil needs via a major domestic biofuels industry, which could result in an economic boost for the rural regions that would supply the plant material for biofuels.
- Make natural gas again abundant and affordable through wider utilization of well-established efficiency techniques.
See also Edit
- Action on climate change
- Energy demand management
- Energy Tax Act
- Energy: world resources and consumption
- Green politics
- Green tax shift
- National Energy Conservation Policy Act
- Negawatt Power
- New Urbanism
- Nuclear energy policy
- Proposed oil phase-out in Sweden
- Self-sufficient homes
- Soft energy technologies
- Tom Bender
- Amory B. Lovins, Soft Energy Paths: Toward a Durable Peace, Penguin Books, 1977.
- Morrison, D.E., and Lodwick D.G. (1981). "The social impacts of soft and hard energy systems", Annual Review of Energy, 6, 357-378.
- UK Renewable-Energy Web Sites
- Rocky Mountain Institute
- Amory Lovins on the Soft Energy Path
- American energy: The renewable path to energy security
- Soft energy, hard politics