|Low energy phenomena||Photoelectric effect|
|Mid-energy phenomena||Compton scattering|
|High energy phenomena||Pair production|
Photovapor is an analogy of photoelectron.
Photovapor is an analogy of Photoelectron. If incindence angle of photon on the surface of water is very oblique, photovapor of Dangling bond water molecules might have antiparallel spin normal to the incidence plane.
Simple water modelsEdit
The simplest water models treat the water molecule as rigid and rely only on non-bonded interactions. The electrostatic interaction is modeled using Coulomb's law and the dispersion and repulsion forces using the Lennard-Jones potential. The potential for models such as TIP3P and TIP4P is represented by
where kC, the electrostatic constant, has a value of 332.1 Å·kcal/mol in the units commonly used in molecular modeling; qi are the partial charges relative to the charge of the electron; rij is the distance between two atoms or charged sites; and A and B are the Lennard-Jones parameters. The charged sites may be on the atoms or on dummy sites (such as lone pairs). In most water models, the Lennard-Jones term applies only to the interaction between the oxygen atoms.
The figure below shows the general shape of the 3- to 6-site water models. The exact geometric parameters (the OH distance and the HOH angle) vary depending on the model.