WOA05 sea-surf SIO2 AYool

Annual mean sea surface silicic acid (WOA 2005)

WOA05 sea-surf NO3 AYool

Sea surface nitrate from the World Ocean Atlas.


"Present day" (1990s) sea surface DIC concentration (from the GLODAP climatology).


Pre-industrial (1700s) sea surface DIC concentration (from the GLODAP climatology).

Nitrogen genenration has been explained with CNO cycle. Nitrogen generation based on pair annihilation need to introduce Baryon jet.

Baryojet scenario of Nitrogen generationEdit

Nitrogen is abundant on the sea where nitrogen might be generated. With Baryon jet, Oxygen might give Nitrogen and even Carbon. This process might be proceeding aminoacid synthesis.

Nitrogen Fusion ScenarioEdit

With Baryojet, Fusion might happen to some of Nitrogen atom pairs.

Occurrence of SiliconEdit

Measured by mass, silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust and is the second most abundant element in the crust, after oxygen. Pure silicon crystals are very rarely found in nature; they can be found as inclusions with gold and in volcanic exhalations. Silicon is usually found in the form of silicon dioxide (also known as quartz), and other more complex silicate minerals.

Silica occurs in minerals consisting of (practically) pure silicon dioxide in different crystalline forms. Amethyst, agate, quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper, and opal are some of the forms in which silicon dioxide appears. Biogenic silica occurs in the form of diatoms, radiolaria and siliceous sponges.

Silicon also occurs as silicate minerals (various minerals containing silicon, oxygen and one or another metal), for example the feldspar group. These minerals occur in clay, sand and various types of rock such as granite and sandstone. Feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, and mica are a few of the many common silicate mineral groups.

Silicon is a principal component of many meteorites, and also is a component of obsidian and tektites, which are natural forms of glass.


Main article: isotopes of silicon

Silicon has numerous known isotopes, with mass numbers ranging from 22 to 44. 28Si (the most abundant isotope, at 92.23%), 29Si (4.67%), and 30Si (3.1%) are stable; 32Si is a radioactive isotope produced by cosmic ray spallation of argon. Its half-life has been determined to be approximately 170 years (0.21 MeV), and it decays by beta - emission to 32P (which has a 14.28 day half-life )[1] and then to 32S.

Occurrence of NitrogenEdit

Nitrogen is the largest single constituent of the Earth's atmosphere (78.082% by volume of dry air, 75.3% by weight in dry air). It is created by fusion processes in stars, and is estimated to be the 7th most abundant chemical element by mass in the universe.[2]

Molecular nitrogen and nitrogen compounds have been detected in interstellar space by astronomers using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.[3] Molecular nitrogen is a major constituent of the Saturnian moon Titan's thick atmosphere, and occurs in trace amounts in other planetary atmospheres.[4]

Nitrogen is present in all living organisms, in proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules. It typically makes up around 4% of the dry weight of plant matter, and around 3% of the weight of the human body. It is a large component of animal waste (for example, guano), usually in the form of urea, uric acid, ammonium compounds and derivatives of these nitrogenous products, which are essential nutrients for all plants that are unable to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

Nitrogen occurs naturally in a number of minerals, such as saltpetre (potassium nitrate), Chile saltpetre (sodium nitrate) and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride). Most of these are relatively uncommon, partly because of the minerals' ready solubility in water. See also Nitrate minerals and Ammonium minerals.

See alsoEdit


  1. "Phosphorus - 32". 
  2. Croswell, Ken (February 1996). Alchemy of the Heavens, Anchor. ISBN 0-385-47214-5, 
  3. Meyer, Daved M.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Sofia, Ulysses J. (1997). "Abundance of Interstellar Nitrogen". arXiv. Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  4. Hamilton, Calvin J.. "Titan (Saturn VI)". Retrieved on 2007-12-24.

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