Saturn has 61 moons with confirmed orbits, 52 of which have names, and most of which are quite small. There are also hundreds of known "moonlets" embedded within Saturn's rings. With seven moons that are large enough to be rounded in shape (and which would thus be considered dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit about the Sun) in addition to the planet's broad and dense rings, the Saturnian system is the most diverse in the solar system. Particularly notable are Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System, with an earth-like atmosphere and a landscape including hydrocarbon lakes and river networks, and Enceladus, which may harbor liquid water under its south pole.
Twenty-three of Saturn's moons are regular satellites, with prograde orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane. In addition to the seven major satellites, an additional four moons are small trojans that share an orbit with a larger moon, and two more are mutually co-orbital moons. Finally, two moons are known to orbit within gaps in Saturn's rings. The regular satellites are traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn.
The remaining thirty-eight, all small, are irregular satellites, whose orbits are much farther from Saturn, have high inclinations, and are mixed between prograde and retrograde. These moons were likely captured minor planets, or debris from the breakup of such bodies after they were captured, creating collisional families. The irregular satellites have been classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies.
The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from microscopic to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.
A confirmed moon is given a permanent designation by the IAU consisting of a name and a Roman numeral. The nine moons that were known before 1900 (of which Phoebe is the only irregular) are numbered in order of their distance from Saturn; the rest are numbered in the order by which they received their permanent designations. Eight small moons of the Norse group have not received a permanent designation.
The Saturnian moon system is very lopsided, with one moon, Titan, comprising more than 96 percent of the mass in orbit around the planet. The six other spherical moons constitute roughly four percent, while the remaining 54 together with the rings only comprise 0.01 percent.
Many of Saturn's moons, such as Pan and Daphnis, orbit within Saturn's ring system and have orbital periods only slightly longer than the planet's rotation period. But several irregular satellites in the outermost regions of Saturn's moon system, in particular the Norse group, have orbital radii of millions of miles and orbital periods lasting several years. The moons of the Norse group also lie almost perpendicular to Saturn's equator, while the moons of the Gallic and Inuit groups have inclinations ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. The innermost moons and most regular satellites all have inclinations ranging from less than a degree to ~1.5 degrees. The exception is Iapetus, which has an inclination of 7.57 degrees.
Before the advent of telescopic photography, eight moons of Saturn were discovered by direct observation using an optical telescope. Saturn's largest moon, Titan, was discovered in 1655 by Christiaan Huygens. Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Iapetus (the "Sidera Lodoicea") were discovered 1671-1684 by Giovanni Domenico Cassini. William Herschel discovered Mimas and Enceladus in 1789. Hyperion was discovered 1848 by W.C. Bond, G.P. Bond and Lassell.
The use of long-exposure photographic plates made it possible to discover additional moons. The first to be discovered in this manner, Phoebe, was found in 1899 by W.H. Pickering. In 1966, the satellites Janus and Epimetheus were observed, but not confirmed, and it was not realized that there were two distinct moons sharing an orbit.
Observations by spacecraftEdit
The study of the outer planets has since been revolutionized by the use of unmanned space probes. The arrival of the Voyager space probes at Saturn in 1980 resulted in the discovery of seven additional moons, bringing the total from 10 to 17. Epimetheus was confirmed as distinct from Janus. In 1990, Pan was discovered in archival Voyager images.
The Cassini mission, which arrived at Saturn in the summer of 2004, discovered three small moons in the inner Saturnian system (Methone, Pallene and Polydeuces) as well as three suspected but unconfirmed moons in the F Ring. On November 16, 2004 Cassini scientists announced that the structure of Saturn's rings indicates the presence of several more moons orbiting within the rings, but only one, Daphnis, has been visually confirmed so far (its confirmation was announced on May 6, 2005). On July 18, 2007 Anthe was announced. On March 6, 2008 it was announced that Cassini observations of a depletion of energetic electrons in Saturn's magnetosphere near Rhea might be the signature of a tenuous ring system around Saturn's second largest moon. On March 3, 2009, Aegaeon, a moonlet within the G Ring, was announced.
Study of Saturn's moons has also been aided by advances in telescopy. For the entire 20th century, Phoebe stood alone among Saturn's known moons in its highly irregular orbit. Beginning in 2000, three dozen additional irregular moons have been found using ground-based telescopes. A survey starting in late 2000 found thirteen new moons orbiting Saturn at a great distance in orbits that suggest they are fragments of larger bodies captured by Saturn's gravitational pull (Nature vol. 412, pp. 163–166). On May 3, 2005, astronomers using the Mauna Kea Observatory announced the discovery of twelve more small outer moons. On June 30, 2006 astronomers using the Subaru 8.2 m telescope announced the discovery of nine more small outer moons. On April 13, 2007 Tarqeq was announced On May 1, 2007 S/2007 S 2 and S/2007 S 3 were announced.
Although the borders may be somewhat nebulous, Saturn's moons can be divided into ten groups.
A-Ring and F-Ring moonletsEdit
In 2006, four tiny "moonlets" were found in Cassini images of the A Ring. Two larger moons had previously been spotted in the A Ring: Pan and Daphnis. These are large enough to clear gaps in the ring particles that circle the planet as they orbit Saturn. In contrast, the "moonlets" are only massive enough to clear a partial gap in the immediate vicinity of the moonlet itself; this wake is shaped like an airplane propeller and is only about ten km across. The moonlets themselves are tiny, ranging from about 40–500 meters in diameter, and are too small to be seen directly. In 2007, the discovery of 150 more moonlets revealed that they are confined to three narrow bands (each a thousand kilometers wide, less than 1% the width of Saturn's rings) in the A Ring about 130,000 km from Saturn's center that are free from the disturbance of strong density waves, with the exception of two that have been seen outside the Encke Gap. (However, other areas of the A Ring without density-wave disturbances are apparently free of moonlets.) This suggests that they were formed from the breakup of larger bodies. It is estimated that the A Ring contains thousands of such fragments.
Similar moonlets are thought to reside in the F Ring. There, "jets" of material may be due to collisions, initiated by perturbations from the nearby small moon Prometheus, of these moonlets with the core of the F Ring. One of the largest F-Ring moonlets may be the as-yet unconfirmed object S/2004 S 6. The F Ring also contains transient "fans" which are thought to result from even smaller moonlets, about 1-km in diameter, orbiting near the F Ring core.
Shepherd satellites are moons that orbit within, or just beyond, a planet's ring system. They have the effect of sculpting the rings: giving them sharp edges, and creating gaps between them. Saturn's shepherd moons are the moonlets, Pan, Daphnis, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Aegaeon, in addition to the unconfirmed moons S/2004 S 4, S/2004 S 6 and S/2004 S 3.
- Main article: Co-orbital moon
Janus and Epimetheus are co-orbital moons. These two moons are of roughly equal size and have orbits with only a few kilometers difference in diameter, close enough that they would collide if they attempted to pass each other. Instead of colliding, however, their gravitational interaction causes them to swap orbits every four years.
Inner large moonsEdit
The innermost large moons of Saturn orbit within its tenuous E Ring. They are:
- Mimas, the "Death Star" moon, with a deep crater one fifth its diameter;
- Enceladus, a bright, striped moon whose geysers are the source of the E Ring;
- Tethys, with a canyon running three-quarters its circumference that formed when an internal ocean froze;
- Dione, with wispy terrain on its trailing hemisphere.
- Main article: Trojan moon
Trojan moons are another kind of co-orbital. Like the other co-orbitals, they are a feature unique to the Saturnian system. They are moons that orbit at exactly the same distance from Saturn as another moon, but at such a distance from the other moon that they never collide. Tethys has two tiny co-orbitals Telesto and Calypso, and Dione also has two, Helene and Polydeuces. All four of these moons orbit in the larger moons' L4 or L5 Lagrangian points, one in each point.
Outer large moonsEdit
Saturn's largest moons all orbit beyond its E Ring and can thus be considered a distinct group. They are:
- Rhea, which may have its own ring system;
- Titan, a huge moon, with methane lakes, sand dunes made of organic material, and an atmosphere thicker than Earth's;
- Hyperion, a smallish, tumbling moon that looks like a sponge;
- Iapetus, a two-toned, walnut-shaped moon with an equatorial ridge.
Irregular moons are small satellites with large-radius, inclined, and sometimes retrograde orbits, believed to have been acquired by the parent planet through a capture process. They often occur as collisional families. The largest Saturnian irregular by far, and the only one known in any detail, is Phoebe.
- Main article: Saturn's Inuit group of satellites
The Inuit group are five prograde outer moons that are similar enough in their distances from Saturn and their orbital inclinations that they can be considered a group. They are Ijiraq, Kiviuq, Paaliaq, Siarnaq, and Tarqeq.
- Main article: Saturn's Norse group of satellites
The Norse group are 29 retrograde outer moons that are similar enough in their distance from Saturn to be considered a group. They are Aegir, Bergelmir, Bestla, Farbauti, Fenrir, Fornjot, Greip, Hati, Hyrrokkin, Jarnsaxa, Kari, Loge, Mundilfari, Narvi, Phoebe, Skathi, Skoll, Surtur, Suttungr, Thrymr, Ymir, S/2004 S 7, S/2004 S 12, S/2004 S 13, S/2004 S 17, S/2006 S 1, S/2006 S 3, S/2007 S 2, and S/2007 S 3.
- Main article: Saturn's Gallic group of satellites
The Gallic group are four prograde outer moons that are similar enough in their distance from Saturn and their orbital inclination that they can be considered a group. They are Albiorix, Bebhionn, Erriapus, and Tarvos.
The diagram illustrates the orbits of the irregular satellites of Saturn discovered so far1. The eccentricity of the orbits is represented by the segments (extending from the pericentre to the apocentre) with the inclination represented on Y axis. The satellites above the axis are prograde, the satellites beneath are retrograde. The X axis is labelled in Gm (million km) and the fraction of the Hill sphere's (gravitational influence) radius (~65 Gm for Saturn). Prograde groups: Inuit and Gallic and the retrograde Norse group are clearly identifiable (from top to bottom).
1Named satellites are plotted in yellow; the unnamed satellites S/2004 Sxx (announced in 2005 and 2006) are plotted in white and S/2006 Sxx in grey.
Table of moonsEdit
The Saturnian moons are listed here by orbital period, from shortest to longest. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in bold. The irregular captured moons (beyond Iapetus) are shaded light grey when prograde and darker grey when retrograde.
|Order||Label||Name||Pronunciation (key)||Image||Diameter (km)[note 1]|| Mass|
(×1018 kg)[note 2]
|Semi-major axis (km)[note 3]||Orbital period (d)[note 4][note 3]||Inclination (°) [note 5][note 3]||Eccentricity[note 3]||Position|| Discovery|
|0||(moonlets)||0.04 to 0.5||<0.0000001||≈ 130 000||Three 1000-km bands within A Ring||2006||Cassini–Huygens|
|1||XVIII||Pan||ˈpæn||30 (35×35×23)||0.00495 ± 0.00075||133 584||+0.575 05||0.001°||0.000 035||in Encke Division||1990||M. Showalter|
|2||XXXV||Daphnis||ˈdæfnɨs||6 − 8||0.000084 ± 0.000012||136 505||+0.594 08||≈ 0°||≈ 0||in Keeler Gap||2005||Cassini–Huygens|
|3||XV||Atlas||ˈætləs||31 (46×38×19)||0.0066 ± 0.00006||137 670||+0.601 69||0.003°||0.001 2||outer A Ring shepherd||1980||Voyager 2|
|4||XVI||Prometheus||proʊˈmiːθiːəs||86 (119×87×61)||0.1566 ± 0.0019||139 380||+0.612 99||0.008°||0.002 2||inner F Ring shepherd||1980||Voyager 2|
|5||XVII||Pandora||pænˈdoʊrə||81 (103×80×64)||0.1356 ± 0.0022||141 720||+0.628 50||0.050°||0.004 2||outer F Ring Shepherd||1980||Voyager 2|
|6a||XI||Epimetheus||ˌɛpɨˈmiːθiːəs||50px||113 (135×108×105)||0.5304 ± 0.00193||151 422||+0.694 33||0.335°||0.009 8||co-orbital||1980||Voyager 2|
|6b||X||Janus||ˈdʒeɪnəs||179 (193×173×137)||1.912 ± 0.005||151 472||+0.694 66||0.165°||0.006 8||co-orbital||1966||A. Dollfus|
|8||LIII||Aegaeon||iːˈdʒiːən||≈ 0.5||~0.0000001||167 500||+0.808 12||0.001°||0.000 2||G-ring moonlet||2008 ||Cassini–Huygens|
|9||I||Mimas||ˈmaɪməs||397 (415×394×381)||37.493 ± 0.031||185 404||+0.942 422||1.566°||0.020 2||1789||W. Herschel|
|10||XXXII||Methone||mɨˈθoʊniː||≈ 3||~0.00002||194 440||+1.009 57||0.007°||0.000 1||Alkyonides||2004||Cassini–Huygens|
|11||XLIX||Anthe||ˈænθiː||≈ 2||~0.000007||197 700||+1.036 50||0.1°||0.001||Alkyonides||2007||Cassini–Huygens|
|12||XXXIII||Pallene||pəˈliːniː||4||~0.00005||212 280||+1.153 75||0.181°||0.004 0||Alkyonides||2004||Cassini–Huygens|
|13||II||Enceladus||ɛnˈsɛlədəs||504 (513×503×497)||108.022 ± 0.101||237 950||+1.370 218||0.010°||0.004 7||Generates the E ring||1789||W. Herschel|
|14||III||Tethys||ˈtiːθɨs||1066 (1081×1062×1055)||617.049 ± 0.132||294 619||+1.887 802||0.168°||0.000 1||1684||G.D. Cassini|
|14a||XIII||Telesto||tɨˈlɛstoʊ||24 (29×22×20)||~0.00941||294 619||+1.887 802||1.158°||0.000||leading Tethys trojan||1980||Voyager 2|
|14b||XIV||Calypso||kəˈlɪpsoʊ||21 (30×23×14)||~0.00063||294 619||+1.887 802||1.473°||0.000||trailing Tethys trojan||1980||Voyager 2|
|17||IV||Dione||daɪˈoʊniː||1123 (1128×1122×1121)||1095.452 ± 0.168||377 396||+2.736 915||0.002°||0.002 2||1684||G.D. Cassini|
|17a||XII||Helene||ˈhɛlɨniː||33 (36×32×30)||~0.02446||377 396||+2.736 915||0.212°||0.002 2||leading Dione trojan||1980||Voyager 2|
|17b||XXXIV||Polydeuces||ˌpɒliˈdjuːsiːz||3.5||~0.00003||377 396||+2.736 915||0.177°||0.019 2||trailing Dione trojan||2004||Cassini–Huygens|
|20||V||Rhea||ˈriːə||1529 (1535×1525×1526)||2306.518 ± 0.353||527 108||+4.518 212||0.327°||0.001 258||1672||G.D. Cassini|
|21||VI||Titan||ˈtaɪtən||5151||134520 ± 20||1 221 930||+15.945 42||0.3485°||0.028 8||1655||C. Huygens|
|22||VII||Hyperion||haɪˈpiːriən||292 (360×280×225)||5.584 ± 0.068||1 481 010||+21.276 61||0.568°||0.123 006||1848||W.C. Bond, G.P. Bond and W. Lassell|
|23||VIII||Iapetus||aɪˈæpɨtəs||1472 (1494×1498×1425)||1805.635 ± 0.375||3 560 820||+79.321 5||7.570°||0.028 613||1671||G.D. Cassini|
|24||XXIV||Kiviuq||ˈkɪvioʊk||≈ 16||~0.00279||11 294 800||+448.16||49.087°||0.328 8||Inuit group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|25||XXII||Ijiraq||ˈiː.ɨrɒk||≈ 12||~0.00118||11 355 316||+451.77||50.212°||0.316 1||Inuit group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|26||IX||Phoebe||ˈfiːbiː||220 (230×220×210)||8.292 ± 0.010||12 869 700||−545.09||173.047°||0.156 242||Norse group||1899||W.H. Pickering|
|27||XX||Paaliaq||ˈpɑːliɒk||≈ 22||~0.00725||15 103 400||+692.98||46.151°||0.363 1||Inuit group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|28||XXVII||Skathi||ˈskɒði||≈ 8||~0.00035||15 672 500||−732.52||149.084°||0.246||Norse (Skathi) Group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|29||XXVI||Albiorix||ˌælbiˈɒrɪks||≈ 32||~0.0223||16 266 700||+774.58||38.042°||0.477||Gallic group||2000||M. Holman|
|30||S/2007 S 2||—||≈ 6||~0.00015||16 560 000||−792.96||176.68°||0.241 8||Norse group||2007||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna, B. Marsden|
|31||XXXVII||Bebhionn||ˈbɛviːn||≈ 6||~0.00015||17 153 520||+838.77||40.484°||0.333||Gallic group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|32||XXVIII||Erriapus||ˌɛriˈæpəs||≈ 10||~0.00068||17 236 900||+844.89||38.109°||0.472 4||Gallic group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|33||XLVII||Skoll||ˈskɒl, ˈskɜːl||≈ 6||~0.00015||17 473 800||−862.37||155.624°||0.418||Norse (Skathi) group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|34||XXIX||Siarnaq||ˈsiːɑrnək||≈ 40||~0.0435||17 776 600||+884.88||45.798°||0.249 61||Inuit group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|35||LII||Tarqeq||ˈtɑrkeɪk||≈ 7||~0.00023||17 910 600||+894.86||49.904°||0.1081||Inuit group||2007||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|36||S/2004 S 13||—||≈ 6||~0.00015||18 056 300||−905.85||167.379°||0.261||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|37||LI||Greip||ˈɡreɪp||≈ 6||~0.00015||18 065 700||−906.56||172.666°||0.373 5||Norse group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|38||XLIV||Hyrrokkin||hɪˈrɒkɨn||≈ 8||~0.00035||18 168 300||−914.29||153.272°||0.360 4||Norse (Skathi) group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|39||L||Jarnsaxa||jɑrnˈsæksə||≈ 6||~0.00015||18 556 900||−943.78||162.861°||0.191 8||Norse group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|40||XXI||Tarvos||ˈtɑrvəs||≈ 15||~0.0023||18 562 800||+944.23||34.679°||0.530 5||Gallic group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|41||XXV||Mundilfari||ˌmʊndəlˈvɛri||≈ 7||~0.00023||18 725 800||−956.70||169.378°||0.198||Norse group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|42||S/2006 S 1||—||≈ 6||~0.00015||18 930 200||−972.41||154.232°||0.130 3||Norse (Skathi) group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|43||S/2004 S 17||—||≈ 4||~0.00005||19 099 200||−985.45||166.881°||0.226||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|44||XXXVIII||Bergelmir||bɛrˈjɛlmɪr||≈ 6||~0.00015||19 104 000||−985.83||157.384°||0.152||Norse (Skathi) group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|45||XXXI||Narvi||ˈnɑrvi||≈ 7||~0.00023||19 395 200||−1008.45||137.292°||0.320||Norse (Narvi) group||2003||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|46||XXIII||Suttungr||ˈsʊtʊŋɡər||≈ 7||~0.00023||19 579 000||−1022.82||174.321°||0.131||Norse group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|47||XLIII||Hati||ˈhɑːti||≈ 6||~0.00015||19 709 300||−1033.05||163.131°||0.291||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|48||S/2004 S 12||—||≈ 5||~0.00009||19 905 900||−1048.54||164.042°||0.396||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|49||XL||Farbauti||fɑrˈbaʊti||≈ 5||~0.00009||19 984 800||−1054.78||158.361°||0.209||Norse (Skathi) group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|50||XXX||Thrymr||ˈθrɪmər||≈ 7||~0.00023||20 278 100||−1078.09||174.524°||0.453||Norse group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|51||XXXVI||Aegir||ˈaɪ.ər||≈ 6||~0.00015||20 482 900||−1094.46||167.425°||0.237||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|52||S/2007 S 3||—||≈ 5||~0.00009||20 518 500||≈ −1100||177.22°||0.130||Norse group||2007||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|53||XXXIX||Bestla||ˈbɛstlə||≈ 7||~0.00023||20 570 000||−1101.45||147.395°||0.77||Norse (Narvi) group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|54||S/2004 S 7||—||≈ 6||~0.00015||20 576 700||−1101.99||165.596°||0.529 9||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|55||S/2006 S 3||—||≈ 6||~0.00015||21 076 300||−1142.37||150.817°||0.471 0||Norse (Skathi) group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|56||XLI||Fenrir||ˈfɛnrɪr||≈ 4||~0.00005||21 930 644||−1212.53||162.832°||0.131||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|57||XLVIII||Surtur||ˈsʊərtər||≈ 6||~0.00015||22 288 916||−1242.36||166.918°||0.368 0||Norse group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|58||XLV||Kari||ˈkɑːri||≈ 7||~0.00023||22 321 200||−1245.06||148.384°||0.340 5||Norse (Skathi) group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|59||XIX||Ymir||ˈɪmɪr||≈ 18||~0.00397||22 429 673||−1254.15||172.143°||0.334 9||Norse group||2000||B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.|
|60||XLVI||Loge||ˈlɔɪ.eɪ||≈ 6||~0.00015||22 984 322||−1300.95||166.539°||0.139 0||Norse group||2006||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
|61||XLII||Fornjot||ˈfɔrnjɒt||≈ 6||~0.00015||24 504 879||−1432.16||167.886°||0.186||Norse group||2004||S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna|
The following objects (observed by Cassini) have not been confirmed as solid bodies. It is not yet clear if these are real satellites or merely persistent clumps within the F Ring.
|Order||Name||Image||Diameter (km)|| Semi-major|
|*||S/2004 S 6||≈ 3–5||140 130||+0.618 01||uncertain objects around the F-Ring||2004|
|*||S/2004 S 3/S 4[note 6]||≈ 3−5||≈ 140 300||≈ +0.619||2004|
These two moons were claimed to be discovered by different astronomers but never seen again. Since they both were said to orbit between Titan and Hyperion, it is possible that they are in fact identical, but most likely, none of these moons exist in reality.
- Chiron which was supposedly sighted by Hermann Goldschmidt in 1861 but never observed by anyone else.
- Themis was allegedly discovered in 1905 by astronomer William Pickering, but never seen again. Nevertheless it was included in numerous almanacs and astronomy books until the 1960's.
- Saturn's moons in fiction
- Natural satellites of Mars · Jupiter · Uranus · Neptune · Pluto
- Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites
- Naming of natural satellites
- ↑ The diameters and dimensions were taken from Thomas, 2006, Porco, 2005  and Porco, 2006.
- ↑ Masses of the large moons were taken from Jacobson, 2006. Masses of some small inner moons were taken from Porco, 2007. Mass of other small moons were calculated assuming a density of 1.3 g/cm3. Unless otherwise noted, the uncertainty in the reported masses is not available.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The orbital parameters were taken from Spitale, et al. 2006, IAU-MPC Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service, and NASA/NSSDC.
- ↑ Negative orbital periods indicate a retrograde orbit around Saturn (opposite to the planet's rotation)
- ↑ To Saturn's equator.
- ↑ S/2004 S4 was most likely a transient clump − it has not been recovered since the first sighting.
- ↑ Robert Roy Britt (2004). "Hints of Unseen Moons in Saturn's Rings". Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
- ↑ Jones, Geraint H.; et al. (2008-03-07). "The Dust Halo of Saturn's Largest Icy Moon, Rhea". Science (AAAS) 319 (5868): 1380–1384. doi:10.1126/science.1151524. PMID 18323452, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/319/5868/1380.
- ↑ David Jewitt (May 3 2005). "12 New Moons For Saturn". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 2005-05-11. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
- ↑ Emily Lakdawalla (May 3 2005). "Twelve New Moons For Saturn". Archived from the original on 2006-08-31. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
- ↑ "MPEC M45: Eight new satellites of Saturn". IAU Minor Planet Center (2007). Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Matthew S. Tiscareno et al. (2006). "100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn's A ring from observations of 'propeller' structures". Nature 440: 648–650. doi:10.1038/nature04581, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7084/full/nature04581.html.
- ↑ Cassini Finds 'Missing Link' Moonlet Evidence in Saturn's Rings
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Miodrag Sremčević et al. (2007). "A belt of moonlets in Saturn's A ring". Nature 449: 1019–1021. doi:10.1038/nature06224, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7165/full/nature06224.html.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Matthew S. Tiscareno et al. (2008). "The population of propellers in Saturn's A Ring". Astronomical Journal 135: 1083–1091. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/3/1083.
- ↑ Murray, Carl D.; Beurle, Kevin; Cooper, Nicholas J. et al. (2008). "The determination of the structure of Saturn’s F ring by nearby moonlets". Nature 453 (7196): 739–744. doi:10.1038/nature06999, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7196/abs/nature06999.html.
- ↑ "Methane Lakes Found on Saturn's Largest Moon", VOA News, Voice of America (3rd January 2007). Retrieved on 3rd January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009.
- ↑ Source: Thomas et al. 2006
- ↑ Source: Porco et al. 2005
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 C.C. Porco et al. (2006). "Physical characteristics and possible accretionary origins for Saturn's small satellites". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 37: 768, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2006/pdf/2289.pdf.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Template:Source list/Jacobson2006
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Template:Source list/Porco2007
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 J.N. Spitale et al. (2006). "The orbits of Saturn's small satellites derived from combined historic and Cassini imaging observations" ([dead link]). The Astronomical Journal 132: 692. doi:10.1086/505206, http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJ/journal/issues/v132n2/205235/205235.web.pdf.
- ↑ "Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service". IAU: Minor Planet Center. Retrieved on 2008-12-20.
- ↑ Williams, David R. (2009-03-08). "Saturnian Satellite Fact Sheet". NASA (National Space Science Data Center). Retrieved on 2008-12-20.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Template:Source list/Gazetteer
- ↑ IAU Circular No. 9023
- ↑ Saturn's Ninth and Tenth Moons
- ↑ Hypothetical Planets
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