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Moons of Saturn

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File:Moons of Saturn 2007.jpg
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Saturn has 61 moons with confirmed orbits, 52 of which have names, and most of which are quite small. There are also hundreds of known "moonlets" embedded within Saturn's rings. With seven moons that are large enough to be rounded in shape (and which would thus be considered dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit about the Sun) in addition to the planet's broad and dense rings, the Saturnian system is the most diverse in the solar system. Particularly notable are Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System, with an earth-like atmosphere and a landscape including hydrocarbon lakes and river networks, and Enceladus, which may harbor liquid water under its south pole.

Twenty-three of Saturn's moons are regular satellites, with prograde orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane. In addition to the seven major satellites, an additional four moons are small trojans that share an orbit with a larger moon, and two more are mutually co-orbital moons. Finally, two moons are known to orbit within gaps in Saturn's rings. The regular satellites are traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn.

The remaining thirty-eight, all small, are irregular satellites, whose orbits are much farther from Saturn, have high inclinations, and are mixed between prograde and retrograde. These moons were likely captured minor planets, or debris from the breakup of such bodies after they were captured, creating collisional families. The irregular satellites have been classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies.

The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from microscopic to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

A confirmed moon is given a permanent designation by the IAU consisting of a name and a Roman numeral. The nine moons that were known before 1900 (of which Phoebe is the only irregular) are numbered in order of their distance from Saturn; the rest are numbered in the order by which they received their permanent designations. Eight small moons of the Norse group have not received a permanent designation.

CharacteristicsEdit

File:Masses of Saturnian moons.png

The Saturnian moon system is very lopsided, with one moon, Titan, comprising more than 96 percent of the mass in orbit around the planet. The six other spherical moons constitute roughly four percent, while the remaining 54 together with the rings only comprise 0.01 percent.

Many of Saturn's moons, such as Pan and Daphnis, orbit within Saturn's ring system and have orbital periods only slightly longer than the planet's rotation period. But several irregular satellites in the outermost regions of Saturn's moon system, in particular the Norse group, have orbital radii of millions of miles and orbital periods lasting several years. The moons of the Norse group also lie almost perpendicular to Saturn's equator, while the moons of the Gallic and Inuit groups have inclinations ranging from 30 to 50 degrees. The innermost moons and most regular satellites all have inclinations ranging from less than a degree to ~1.5 degrees. The exception is Iapetus, which has an inclination of 7.57 degrees.

DiscoveryEdit

Before the advent of telescopic photography, eight moons of Saturn were discovered by direct observation using an optical telescope. Saturn's largest moon, Titan, was discovered in 1655 by Christiaan Huygens. Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Iapetus (the "Sidera Lodoicea") were discovered 1671-1684 by Giovanni Domenico Cassini. William Herschel discovered Mimas and Enceladus in 1789. Hyperion was discovered 1848 by W.C. Bond, G.P. Bond and Lassell.

The use of long-exposure photographic plates made it possible to discover additional moons. The first to be discovered in this manner, Phoebe, was found in 1899 by W.H. Pickering. In 1966, the satellites Janus and Epimetheus were observed, but not confirmed, and it was not realized that there were two distinct moons sharing an orbit.

Observations by spacecraftEdit

File:Cassini - four Saturn Moons.jpg

The study of the outer planets has since been revolutionized by the use of unmanned space probes. The arrival of the Voyager space probes at Saturn in 1980 resulted in the discovery of seven additional moons, bringing the total from 10 to 17. Epimetheus was confirmed as distinct from Janus. In 1990, Pan was discovered in archival Voyager images.

The Cassini mission, which arrived at Saturn in the summer of 2004, discovered three small moons in the inner Saturnian system (Methone, Pallene and Polydeuces) as well as three suspected but unconfirmed moons in the F Ring. On November 16, 2004 Cassini scientists announced that the structure of Saturn's rings indicates the presence of several more moons orbiting within the rings, but only one, Daphnis, has been visually confirmed so far (its confirmation was announced on May 6, 2005).[1] On July 18, 2007 Anthe was announced. On March 6, 2008 it was announced that Cassini observations of a depletion of energetic electrons in Saturn's magnetosphere near Rhea might be the signature of a tenuous ring system around Saturn's second largest moon.[2] On March 3, 2009, Aegaeon, a moonlet within the G Ring, was announced.

Ground-based observationsEdit

Study of Saturn's moons has also been aided by advances in telescopy. For the entire 20th century, Phoebe stood alone among Saturn's known moons in its highly irregular orbit. Beginning in 2000, three dozen additional irregular moons have been found using ground-based telescopes. A survey starting in late 2000 found thirteen new moons orbiting Saturn at a great distance in orbits that suggest they are fragments of larger bodies captured by Saturn's gravitational pull (Nature vol. 412, pp. 163–166). On May 3, 2005, astronomers using the Mauna Kea Observatory announced the discovery of twelve more small outer moons.[3][4] On June 30, 2006 astronomers using the Subaru 8.2 m telescope announced the discovery of nine more small outer moons.[5] On April 13, 2007 Tarqeq was announced On May 1, 2007 S/2007 S 2 and S/2007 S 3 were announced.

Naming notesEdit

Some asteroids share the same names as moons of Saturn: 55 Pandora, 106 Dione, 577 Rhea, 1809 Prometheus, 1810 Epimetheus, 4450 Pan. See also Name conflicts of solar system objects.

GroupsEdit

Although the borders may be somewhat nebulous, Saturn's moons can be divided into ten groups.

A-Ring and F-Ring moonletsEdit

In 2006, four tiny "moonlets" were found in Cassini images of the A Ring.[6] Two larger moons had previously been spotted in the A Ring: Pan and Daphnis. These are large enough to clear gaps in the ring particles that circle the planet as they orbit Saturn. In contrast, the "moonlets" are only massive enough to clear a partial gap in the immediate vicinity of the moonlet itself; this wake is shaped like an airplane propeller and is only about ten km across.[7] The moonlets themselves are tiny, ranging from about 40–500 meters in diameter, and are too small to be seen directly. In 2007, the discovery of 150 more moonlets revealed that they are confined to three narrow bands (each a thousand kilometers wide, less than 1% the width of Saturn's rings) in the A Ring about 130,000 km from Saturn's center that are free from the disturbance of strong density waves, with the exception of two that have been seen outside the Encke Gap. (However, other areas of the A Ring without density-wave disturbances are apparently free of moonlets.) This suggests that they were formed from the breakup of larger bodies. It is estimated that the A Ring contains thousands of such fragments.[8][9]

Similar moonlets are thought to reside in the F Ring. There, "jets" of material may be due to collisions, initiated by perturbations from the nearby small moon Prometheus, of these moonlets with the core of the F Ring. One of the largest F-Ring moonlets may be the as-yet unconfirmed object S/2004 S 6. The F Ring also contains transient "fans" which are thought to result from even smaller moonlets, about 1-km in diameter, orbiting near the F Ring core.[10]

Ring shepherdsEdit

Shepherd satellites are moons that orbit within, or just beyond, a planet's ring system. They have the effect of sculpting the rings: giving them sharp edges, and creating gaps between them. Saturn's shepherd moons are the moonlets, Pan, Daphnis, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Aegaeon, in addition to the unconfirmed moons S/2004 S 4, S/2004 S 6 and S/2004 S 3.

Co-orbitalsEdit

Main article: Co-orbital moon

Janus and Epimetheus are co-orbital moons. These two moons are of roughly equal size and have orbits with only a few kilometers difference in diameter, close enough that they would collide if they attempted to pass each other. Instead of colliding, however, their gravitational interaction causes them to swap orbits every four years.

Inner large moonsEdit

The innermost large moons of Saturn orbit within its tenuous E Ring. They are:

AlkyonidesEdit

These three moons orbit between Mimas and Enceladus: Methone, Anthe, and Pallene. Both Methone and Anthe possess faint ring arcs. A very faint ring has also been detected in Pallene's orbit. ref[1]

Trojan moonsEdit

Main article: Trojan moon

Trojan moons are another kind of co-orbital. Like the other co-orbitals, they are a feature unique to the Saturnian system. They are moons that orbit at exactly the same distance from Saturn as another moon, but at such a distance from the other moon that they never collide. Tethys has two tiny co-orbitals Telesto and Calypso, and Dione also has two, Helene and Polydeuces. All four of these moons orbit in the larger moons' L4 or L5 Lagrangian points, one in each point.

Outer large moonsEdit

Saturn's largest moons all orbit beyond its E Ring and can thus be considered a distinct group. They are:

Irregular moonsEdit

File:TheIrregulars SATURN.svg

Irregular moons are small satellites with large-radius, inclined, and sometimes retrograde orbits, believed to have been acquired by the parent planet through a capture process. They often occur as collisional families. The largest Saturnian irregular by far, and the only one known in any detail, is Phoebe.

Inuit groupEdit

Main article: Saturn's Inuit group of satellites

The Inuit group are five prograde outer moons that are similar enough in their distances from Saturn and their orbital inclinations that they can be considered a group. They are Ijiraq, Kiviuq, Paaliaq, Siarnaq, and Tarqeq.

Norse groupEdit

Main article: Saturn's Norse group of satellites

The Norse group are 29 retrograde outer moons that are similar enough in their distance from Saturn to be considered a group. They are Aegir, Bergelmir, Bestla, Farbauti, Fenrir, Fornjot, Greip, Hati, Hyrrokkin, Jarnsaxa, Kari, Loge, Mundilfari, Narvi, Phoebe, Skathi, Skoll, Surtur, Suttungr, Thrymr, Ymir, S/2004 S 7, S/2004 S 12, S/2004 S 13, S/2004 S 17, S/2006 S 1, S/2006 S 3, S/2007 S 2, and S/2007 S 3.

Gallic groupEdit

Main article: Saturn's Gallic group of satellites

The Gallic group are four prograde outer moons that are similar enough in their distance from Saturn and their orbital inclination that they can be considered a group. They are Albiorix, Bebhionn, Erriapus, and Tarvos.

The diagram illustrates the orbits of the irregular satellites of Saturn discovered so far1. The eccentricity of the orbits is represented by the segments (extending from the pericentre to the apocentre) with the inclination represented on Y axis. The satellites above the axis are prograde, the satellites beneath are retrograde. The X axis is labelled in Gm (million km) and the fraction of the Hill sphere's (gravitational influence) radius (~65 Gm for Saturn). Prograde groups: Inuit and Gallic and the retrograde Norse group are clearly identifiable (from top to bottom).

1Named satellites are plotted in yellow; the unnamed satellites S/2004 Sxx (announced in 2005 and 2006) are plotted in white and S/2006 Sxx in grey.

Table of moonsEdit

The Saturnian moons are listed here by orbital period, from shortest to longest. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in bold. The irregular captured moons (beyond Iapetus) are shaded light grey when prograde and darker grey when retrograde.

Order Label Name Pronunciation (key) Image Diameter (km)[note 1] Mass
(×1018 kg)[note 2]
Semi-major axis (km)[note 3] Orbital period (d)[note 4][note 3] Inclination (°) [note 5][note 3] Eccentricity[note 3] Position Discovery
year
[6][8][9]
Discoverer
[20]
0 (moonlets) 0.04 to 0.5 <0.0000001 ≈ 130 000 Three 1000-km bands within A Ring 2006 Cassini–Huygens
1 XVIII Pan ˈpæn
Pan side view
30 (35×35×23) 0.00495 ± 0.00075 133 584 +0.575 05 0.001° 0.000 035 in Encke Division 1990 M. Showalter
2 XXXV Daphnis ˈdæfnɨs
PIA06237
6 − 8 0.000084 ± 0.000012 136 505 +0.594 08 ≈ 0° ≈ 0 in Keeler Gap 2005 Cassini–Huygens
3 XV Atlas ˈætləs
Cassini Atlas N00084634 CL
31 (46×38×19) 0.0066 ± 0.00006 137 670 +0.601 69 0.003° 0.001 2 outer A Ring shepherd 1980 Voyager 2
4 XVI Prometheus proʊˈmiːθiːəs
Prometheus moon
86 (119×87×61) 0.1566 ± 0.0019 139 380 +0.612 99 0.008° 0.002 2 inner F Ring shepherd 1980 Voyager 2
5 XVII Pandora pænˈdoʊrə
Pandora PIA07632
81 (103×80×64) 0.1356 ± 0.0022 141 720 +0.628 50 0.050° 0.004 2 outer F Ring Shepherd 1980 Voyager 2
6a XI Epimetheus ˌɛpɨˈmiːθiːəs 50px 113 (135×108×105) 0.5304 ± 0.00193 151 422 +0.694 33 0.335° 0.009 8 co-orbital 1980 Voyager 2
6b X Janus ˈdʒeɪnəs 179 (193×173×137) 1.912 ± 0.005 151 472 +0.694 66 0.165° 0.006 8 co-orbital 1966 A. Dollfus
8 LIII Aegaeon iːˈdʒiːən ≈ 0.5 ~0.0000001 167 500 +0.808 12 0.001° 0.000 2 G-ring moonlet 2008 [21] Cassini–Huygens
9 I Mimas ˈmaɪməs
Mimas moon
397 (415×394×381) 37.493 ± 0.031 185 404 +0.942 422 1.566° 0.020 2   1789 W. Herschel
10 XXXII Methone mɨˈθoʊniː
Methone (frame 15)
≈ 3 ~0.00002 194 440 +1.009 57 0.007° 0.000 1 Alkyonides 2004 Cassini–Huygens
11 XLIX Anthe ˈænθiː ≈ 2 ~0.000007 197 700 +1.036 50 0.1° 0.001 Alkyonides 2007 Cassini–Huygens
12 XXXIII Pallene pəˈliːniː
S2004s2 040601
4 ~0.00005 212 280 +1.153 75 0.181° 0.004 0 Alkyonides 2004 Cassini–Huygens
13 II Enceladus ɛnˈsɛlədəs
EN011 Color mosaic
504 (513×503×497) 108.022 ± 0.101 237 950 +1.370 218 0.010° 0.004 7 Generates the E ring 1789 W. Herschel
14 III Tethys ˈtiːθɨs 1066 (1081×1062×1055) 617.049 ± 0.132 294 619 +1.887 802 0.168° 0.000 1   1684 G.D. Cassini
14a XIII Telesto tɨˈlɛstoʊ
Telesto cassini closeup
24 (29×22×20) ~0.00941 294 619 +1.887 802 1.158° 0.000 leading Tethys trojan 1980 Voyager 2
14b XIV Calypso kəˈlɪpsoʊ
Calypso image PIA07633
21 (30×23×14) ~0.00063 294 619 +1.887 802 1.473° 0.000 trailing Tethys trojan 1980 Voyager 2
17 IV Dione daɪˈoʊniː 1123 (1128×1122×1121) 1095.452 ± 0.168 377 396 +2.736 915 0.002° 0.002 2   1684 G.D. Cassini
17a XII Helene ˈhɛlɨniː
Cassini Helene N00086698 CL.jpg
33 (36×32×30) ~0.02446 377 396 +2.736 915 0.212° 0.002 2 leading Dione trojan 1980 Voyager 2
17b XXXIV Polydeuces ˌpɒliˈdjuːsiːz
Polydeuces
3.5 ~0.00003 377 396 +2.736 915 0.177° 0.019 2 trailing Dione trojan 2004 Cassini–Huygens
20 V Rhea ˈriːə
Rhea (moon) thumb
1529 (1535×1525×1526) 2306.518 ± 0.353 527 108 +4.518 212 0.327° 0.001 258   1672 G.D. Cassini
21 VI Titan ˈtaɪtən
Titan in natural color Cassini
5151 134520 ± 20 1 221 930 +15.945 42 0.3485° 0.028 8   1655 C. Huygens
22 VII Hyperion haɪˈpiːriən
Hyperion true
292 (360×280×225) 5.584 ± 0.068 1 481 010 +21.276 61 0.568° 0.123 006   1848 W.C. Bond, G.P. Bond and W. Lassell
23 VIII Iapetus aɪˈæpɨtəs 1472 (1494×1498×1425) 1805.635 ± 0.375 3 560 820 +79.321 5 7.570° 0.028 613   1671 G.D. Cassini
24 XXIV Kiviuq ˈkɪvioʊk ≈ 16 ~0.00279 11 294 800 +448.16 49.087° 0.328 8 Inuit group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
25 XXII Ijiraq ˈiː.ɨrɒk ≈ 12 ~0.00118 11 355 316 +451.77 50.212° 0.316 1 Inuit group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
26 IX Phoebe ˈfiːbiː
Phoebe cassini
220 (230×220×210) 8.292 ± 0.010 12 869 700 −545.09 173.047° 0.156 242 Norse group 1899 W.H. Pickering
27 XX Paaliaq ˈpɑːliɒk ≈ 22 ~0.00725 15 103 400 +692.98 46.151° 0.363 1 Inuit group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
28 XXVII Skathi ˈskɒði ≈ 8 ~0.00035 15 672 500 −732.52 149.084° 0.246 Norse (Skathi) Group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
29 XXVI Albiorix ˌælbiˈɒrɪks ≈ 32 ~0.0223 16 266 700 +774.58 38.042° 0.477 Gallic group 2000 M. Holman
30   S/2007 S 2 ≈ 6 ~0.00015 16 560 000 −792.96 176.68° 0.241 8 Norse group 2007 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna, B. Marsden
31 XXXVII Bebhionn ˈbɛviːn ≈ 6 ~0.00015 17 153 520 +838.77 40.484° 0.333 Gallic group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
32 XXVIII Erriapus ˌɛriˈæpəs ≈ 10 ~0.00068 17 236 900 +844.89 38.109° 0.472 4 Gallic group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
33 XLVII Skoll ˈskɒl, ˈskɜːl ≈ 6 ~0.00015 17 473 800 −862.37 155.624° 0.418 Norse (Skathi) group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
34 XXIX Siarnaq ˈsiːɑrnək ≈ 40 ~0.0435 17 776 600 +884.88 45.798° 0.249 61 Inuit group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
35 LII Tarqeq ˈtɑrkeɪk ≈ 7 ~0.00023 17 910 600 +894.86 49.904° 0.1081 Inuit group 2007 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
36   S/2004 S 13 ≈ 6 ~0.00015 18 056 300 −905.85 167.379° 0.261 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
37 LI Greip ˈɡreɪp ≈ 6 ~0.00015 18 065 700 −906.56 172.666° 0.373 5 Norse group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
38 XLIV Hyrrokkin hɪˈrɒkɨn ≈ 8 ~0.00035 18 168 300 −914.29 153.272° 0.360 4 Norse (Skathi) group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
39 L Jarnsaxa jɑrnˈsæksə ≈ 6 ~0.00015 18 556 900 −943.78 162.861° 0.191 8 Norse group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
40 XXI Tarvos ˈtɑrvəs ≈ 15 ~0.0023 18 562 800 +944.23 34.679° 0.530 5 Gallic group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
41 XXV Mundilfari ˌmʊndəlˈvɛri ≈ 7 ~0.00023 18 725 800 −956.70 169.378° 0.198 Norse group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
42   S/2006 S 1 ≈ 6 ~0.00015 18 930 200 −972.41 154.232° 0.130 3 Norse (Skathi) group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
43   S/2004 S 17 ≈ 4 ~0.00005 19 099 200 −985.45 166.881° 0.226 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
44 XXXVIII Bergelmir bɛrˈjɛlmɪr ≈ 6 ~0.00015 19 104 000 −985.83 157.384° 0.152 Norse (Skathi) group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
45 XXXI Narvi ˈnɑrvi ≈ 7 ~0.00023 19 395 200 −1008.45 137.292° 0.320 Norse (Narvi) group 2003 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
46 XXIII Suttungr ˈsʊtʊŋɡər ≈ 7 ~0.00023 19 579 000 −1022.82 174.321° 0.131 Norse group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
47 XLIII Hati ˈhɑːti ≈ 6 ~0.00015 19 709 300 −1033.05 163.131° 0.291 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
48   S/2004 S 12 ≈ 5 ~0.00009 19 905 900 −1048.54 164.042° 0.396 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
49 XL Farbauti fɑrˈbaʊti ≈ 5 ~0.00009 19 984 800 −1054.78 158.361° 0.209 Norse (Skathi) group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
50 XXX Thrymr ˈθrɪmər ≈ 7 ~0.00023 20 278 100 −1078.09 174.524° 0.453 Norse group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
51 XXXVI Aegir ˈaɪ.ər ≈ 6 ~0.00015 20 482 900 −1094.46 167.425° 0.237 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
52   S/2007 S 3 ≈ 5 ~0.00009 20 518 500 ≈ −1100 177.22° 0.130 Norse group 2007 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
53 XXXIX Bestla ˈbɛstlə ≈ 7 ~0.00023 20 570 000 −1101.45 147.395° 0.77 Norse (Narvi) group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
54   S/2004 S 7 ≈ 6 ~0.00015 20 576 700 −1101.99 165.596° 0.529 9 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
55   S/2006 S 3 ≈ 6 ~0.00015 21 076 300 −1142.37 150.817° 0.471 0 Norse (Skathi) group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
56 XLI Fenrir ˈfɛnrɪr ≈ 4 ~0.00005 21 930 644 −1212.53 162.832° 0.131 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
57 XLVIII Surtur ˈsʊərtər ≈ 6 ~0.00015 22 288 916 −1242.36 166.918° 0.368 0 Norse group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
58XLV Kari ˈkɑːri ≈ 7 ~0.00023 22 321 200 −1245.06 148.384° 0.340 5 Norse (Skathi) group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
59 XIX Ymir ˈɪmɪr ≈ 18 ~0.00397 22 429 673 −1254.15 172.143° 0.334 9 Norse group 2000 B. Gladman, J.J. Kavelaars, et al.
60 XLVI Loge ˈlɔɪ.eɪ ≈ 6 ~0.00015 22 984 322 −1300.95 166.539° 0.139 0 Norse group 2006 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna
61 XLII Fornjot ˈfɔrnjɒt ≈ 6 ~0.00015 24 504 879 −1432.16 167.886° 0.186 Norse group 2004 S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

Unconfirmed moonsEdit

The following objects (observed by Cassini) have not been confirmed as solid bodies. It is not yet clear if these are real satellites or merely persistent clumps within the F Ring.

Order Name Image Diameter (km) Semi-major
axis (km)[17]
Orbital
period (d)[17]
Position Discovery year
* S/2004 S 6 ≈ 3–5   140 130 +0.618 01 uncertain objects around the F-Ring 2004
* S/2004 S 3/S 4[note 6] ≈ 3−5 ≈ 140 300 ≈ +0.619 2004

Hypothetical moonsEdit

These two moons were claimed to be discovered by different astronomers but never seen again. Since they both were said to orbit between Titan and Hyperion, it is possible that they are in fact identical, but most likely, none of these moons exist in reality.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. The diameters and dimensions were taken from Thomas, 2006[12], Porco, 2005 [13] and Porco, 2006.[14]
  2. Masses of the large moons were taken from Jacobson, 2006.[15] Masses of some small inner moons were taken from Porco, 2007.[16] Mass of other small moons were calculated assuming a density of 1.3 g/cm3. Unless otherwise noted, the uncertainty in the reported masses is not available.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The orbital parameters were taken from Spitale, et al. 2006,[17] IAU-MPC Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service,[18] and NASA/NSSDC.[19]
  4. Negative orbital periods indicate a retrograde orbit around Saturn (opposite to the planet's rotation)
  5. To Saturn's equator.
  6. S/2004 S4 was most likely a transient clump − it has not been recovered since the first sighting.

References Edit

  1. Robert Roy Britt (2004). "Hints of Unseen Moons in Saturn's Rings". Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
  2. Jones, Geraint H.; et al. (2008-03-07). "The Dust Halo of Saturn's Largest Icy Moon, Rhea". Science (AAAS) 319 (5868): 1380–1384. doi:10.1126/science.1151524. PMID 18323452, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/319/5868/1380. 
  3. David Jewitt (May 3 2005). "12 New Moons For Saturn". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 2005-05-11. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
  4. Emily Lakdawalla (May 3 2005). "Twelve New Moons For Saturn". Archived from the original on 2006-08-31. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
  5. "MPEC M45: Eight new satellites of Saturn". IAU Minor Planet Center (2007). Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved on 2009-03-15.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Matthew S. Tiscareno et al. (2006). "100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn's A ring from observations of 'propeller' structures". Nature 440: 648–650. doi:10.1038/nature04581, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7084/full/nature04581.html. 
  7. Cassini Finds 'Missing Link' Moonlet Evidence in Saturn's Rings
  8. 8.0 8.1 Miodrag Sremčević et al. (2007). "A belt of moonlets in Saturn's A ring". Nature 449: 1019–1021. doi:10.1038/nature06224, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7165/full/nature06224.html. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Matthew S. Tiscareno et al. (2008). "The population of propellers in Saturn's A Ring". Astronomical Journal 135: 1083–1091. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/3/1083. 
  10. Murray, Carl D.; Beurle, Kevin; Cooper, Nicholas J. et al. (2008). "The determination of the structure of Saturn’s F ring by nearby moonlets". Nature 453 (7196): 739–744. doi:10.1038/nature06999, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7196/abs/nature06999.html. 
  11. "Methane Lakes Found on Saturn's Largest Moon", VOA News, Voice of America (3rd January 2007). Retrieved on 3rd January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. 
  12. Source: Thomas et al. 2006
  13. Source: Porco et al. 2005
  14. 14.0 14.1 C.C. Porco et al. (2006). "Physical characteristics and possible accretionary origins for Saturn's small satellites". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 37: 768, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2006/pdf/2289.pdf. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Template:Source list/Jacobson2006
  16. 16.0 16.1 Template:Source list/Porco2007
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 J.N. Spitale et al. (2006). "The orbits of Saturn's small satellites derived from combined historic and Cassini imaging observations" ([dead link]). The Astronomical Journal 132: 692. doi:10.1086/505206, http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJ/journal/issues/v132n2/205235/205235.web.pdf. 
  18. "Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service". IAU: Minor Planet Center. Retrieved on 2008-12-20.
  19. Williams, David R. (2009-03-08). "Saturnian Satellite Fact Sheet". NASA (National Space Science Data Center). Retrieved on 2008-12-20.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Template:Source list/Gazetteer
  21. IAU Circular No. 9023
  22. Saturn's Ninth and Tenth Moons
  23. Hypothetical Planets

External linksEdit

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ast:Satélites de Saturnu be:Спадарожнікі Сатурна be-x-old:Спадарожнікі Сатурна bs:Saturnovi prirodni sateliti br:Loarennoù Sadorn (planedenn) bg:Естествени спътници на Сатурн ca:Satèl·lits de Saturn cs:Měsíce Saturnu da:Saturns månerel:Δορυφόροι του Κρόνουeo:Satelitoj de Saturnohr:Saturnovi prirodni sateliti it:Satelliti naturali di Saturno he:ירחי שבתאי lv:Saturna pavadoņi lb:Lëscht vun de Mounde vum Saturn lt:Saturno palydovai hu:A Szaturnusz holdjai mk:Сателити на Сатурн ms:Satelit semulajadi Zuhal nah:Tzitzimicītlalli īmētz nl:Manen van Saturnusno:Saturns måner nn:Saturnmånane nds:List von de Saturn-Maanden pl:Księżyce Saturna pt:Satélites de Saturno ro:Sateliţii naturali ai lui Saturnsimple:List of Saturn's moons sk:Mesiace Saturna sl:Saturnovi naravni sateliti fi:Saturnuksen kuut sv:Saturnus naturliga satelliter th:ดวงจันทร์ของดาวเสาร์ tr:Satürn'ün doğal uyduları uk:Супутники Сатурна

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