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Moons of Jupiter

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File:Jupiter family.jpg
Jupiter and its four largest moons

Jupiter has 63 confirmed moons, giving it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System.[1] The most massive of them, the four Galilean moons, were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun. From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers, conquests, or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter, or his Greek equivalent, Zeus.

Eight of Jupiter's moons are regular satellites, with prograde and nearly circular orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Jupiter's equatorial plane. The Galilean satellites are spheroidal in shape, and so would be considered dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit about the Sun. The other four regular satellites are much smaller and closer to Jupiter; these serve as sources of the dust that makes up Jupiter's rings.

Jupiter's other 54 or 55 moons are tiny irregular satellites, whose prograde and retrograde orbits are much farther from Jupiter and have high inclinations and eccentricities. These moons were likely captured by Jupiter from solar orbits. There are 13 recently-discovered irregular satellites that have not yet been named, plus a 14th whose orbit has not yet been established.

File:Masses of Jovian moons.png
The relative masses of the Jovian moons. Those smaller than Europa are invisible at this scale, and taken together would only just be visible at 50× magnification.

CharacteristicsEdit

The moons' physical and orbital characteristics vary widely. The four Galileans are all over 3000 km in diameter; the largest Galilean, Ganymede, is the largest object in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets. All other Jovian moons are less than 250 km in diameter, with most barely exceeding five km. Even Europa, the smallest of the Galileans, is five thousand times more massive than all the non-Galilean moons combined. Orbital shapes range from nearly perfectly circular to highly eccentric and inclined, and many revolve in the direction opposite to Jupiter's spin (retrograde motion). Orbital periods range from seven hours (taking less time than Jupiter does to spin around its axis), to some 3000 times more (almost three Earth years).

Origin and evolutionEdit

Jupiter's regular satellites are believed to have formed from a circumplanetary disk, a ring of accreting gas and solid debris analogous to a protoplanetary disk.[2][3] They may be the remnants of a score of Galilean-mass satellites that formed early in Jupiter's history.[2][4]

Simulations suggest that, while the disk had a relatively low mass at any given moment, over time a substantial fraction (several tens of a percent) of the mass of Jupiter captured from the Solar nebula was processed through it. However, the disk mass of only 2% that of Jupiter is required to explain the existing satellites.[2] Thus there may have been several generations of Galilean-mass satellites in Jupiter's early history. Each generation of moons would have spiraled into Jupiter, due to drag from the disk, with new moons then forming from the new debris captured from the Solar nebula.[2] By the time the present (possibly fifth) generation formed, the disk had thinned out to the point that it no longer greatly interfered with the moons' orbits.[4] The current Galilean moons were still affected, falling into and being partially protected by an orbital resonance which still exists for Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Ganymede's larger mass means that it would have migrated inward at a faster rate than Europa or Io.[2]

The outer, irregular moons are thought to have originated from passing asteroids while the protolunar disk was still massive enough to absorb much of their momentum and thus capture them into orbit. Many broke up by the stresses of capture, or afterward by collisions with other small bodies, producing the families we see today.[5]

DiscoveryEdit

File:Galilean satellites.jpg
The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
File:Galileans.PNG
The Galilean moons and their orbits around Jupiter

The first claimed observation of one of Jupiter's moons is that of the Chinese astronomer Gan De around 364 BC.[6] However, the first certain observations of Jupiter's satellites were those of Galileo Galilei in 1609.[7] By March 1610, he had sighted the four massive Galilean moons with his 30x magnification telescope:[8] Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. No additional satellites were discovered until E.E. Barnard observed Amalthea in 1892.[9] With the aid of telescopic photography, further discoveries followed quickly over the course of the twentieth century. Himalia was discovered in 1904,[10] Elara in 1905,[11] Pasiphaë in 1908,[12] Sinope in 1914,[13] Lysithea and Carme in 1938,[14] Ananke in 1951,[15] and Leda in 1974.[16] By the time Voyager space probes reached Jupiter around 1979, 13 moons had been discovered, while Themisto was observed in 1975,[17] but due to insufficient initial observation data, it was lost until 2000. The Voyager missions discovered an additional three inner moons in 1979: Metis, Adrastea, and Thebe.[18]

For two decades no additional moons were discovered; but between October 1999 and February 2003, researchers using sensitive ground-based detectors found another 32 moons, most of which were discovered by a team led by Scott S. Sheppard and David C. Jewitt.[19] These are tiny moons, in long, eccentric, generally retrograde orbits, and average of 3 km (1.9 mi) in diameter, with the largest being just 9 km (5.6 mi) across. All of these moons are thought to be captured asteroidal or perhaps cometary bodies, possibly fragmented into several pieces,[20] but very little is actually known about them. A number of 14 additional moons were discovered since then, but not yet confirmed, bringing the total number of observed moons of Jupiter at 63.[21] As of 2008, this is the most of any planet in the Solar System, but additional undiscovered, tiny moons may exist.

NamingEdit

Main article: Naming of moons

The Galilean moons of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) were named by Simon Marius soon after their discovery in 1610.[22] However, until the 20th century these fell out of favor, and instead they were referred to in the astronomical literature simply as "Jupiter I", "Jupiter II", etc., or as "the first satellite of Jupiter", "Jupiter's second satellite", and so on.[22] The names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto became popular in the 20th century, while the rest of the moons, usually numbered in Roman numerals V (5) through XII (12), remained unnamed.[23] By a popular though unofficial convention, Jupiter V, discovered in 1892, was given the name Amalthea, first used by the French astronomer Camille Flammarion.[19]

The other moons, in the majority of astronomical literature, were simply labeled by their Roman numeral (i.e. Jupiter IX) until the 1970s.[24] In 1975, the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) "Task Group for Outer Solar System Nomenclature" granted names to satellites V–XIII,[25] and provided for a formal naming process for future satellites to be discovered.[25] The practice was to name that newly discovered moons of Jupiter after lovers and favorites of the god Jupiter (Zeus), and since 2004, after their descendants also.[26] All of Jupiter's satellites from XXXIV (Euporie) are named after daughters of Jupiter or Zeus.[26]

Some asteroids share the same names as moons of Jupiter: 9 Metis, 38 Leda, 52 Europa, 85 Io, 113 Amalthea, 239 Adrastea. Two more asteroids previously shared the names of Jovian moons until spelling differences were made permanent by the IAU: Ganymede and asteroid 1036 Ganymed; and Callisto and asteroid 204 Kallisto.

GroupsEdit

File:TheIrregulars JUPITER.svg
The orbits of Jupiter's irregular satellites, and how they cluster into groups: by semi-major axis (the horizontal axis in Gm); by orbital inclination (the vertical axis); and orbital eccentricity (the yellow lines). The relative sizes are indicated by the circles.

Regular satellitesEdit

These are split into two groups:

  • Inner satellites or Amalthea group—they orbit very close to Jupiter: Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe. The innermost two orbit in less than a Jovian day, while the latter two are respectively the fifth and seventh largest moons in the Jovian system. Observations suggest that at least the largest member, Amalthea, did not form on the present orbit, but that it was formed farther from the planet, or that it is a captured Solar System body.[27] These moons, along with a number of as-yet-unseen inner moonlets, replenish and maintain Jupiter's faint ring system. Metis and Adrastea help to maintain Jupiter's main ring, while Amalthea and Thebe each maintain their own faint outer rings.[28][29]
  • Main group or Galilean moons—the four massive satellites: Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. With radii that are larger than any of the dwarf planets, they are some of the largest objects in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets in terms of diameter. Respectively the first, third, fourth, and sixth largest natural satellites in the Solar System, they contain almost 99.999% of the total mass in orbit around Jupiter. Jupiter is about five thousand times more massive than the Galilean moons.[note 1] The inner moons also participate in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance. Models suggest that they formed by slow accretion in the low-density Jovian subnebula—a disc of the gas and dust that existed around Jupiter after its formation—which lasted up to 10 million years in the case of Callisto.[30]

Irregular satellitesEdit

File:Jupiter moons anim.gif
Jupiter's outer moons and their highly inclined orbits
Main article: Irregular satellite

The irregular satellites are substantially smaller objects with more distant and eccentric orbits. They form families with shared similarities in orbit (semi-major axis, inclination, eccentricity) and composition; it is believed that these are at least partially collisional families that were created when larger (but still small) parent bodies were shattered by impacts from asteroids captured by Jupiter's gravitational field. These families bear the names of their largest members. The identification of satellite families is tentative, but the following are typically listed:[21][31][32]

  • Themisto[31] is the innermost irregular moon and not part of a known family.[21]
  • Carpo is the outermost prograde moon and not part of a known family.[21]
File:Jupiter sats i vs e.png
Retrograde satellites: inclinations (°) vs eccentricities, with Carme's (orange) and Ananke's (yellow) groups identified
  • The irregular retrograde satellites are thought to have originally been asteroids that were captured by drag from the tenuous outer regions of Jupiter's accretion disk while the Solar system was still forming, and were later shattered by impacts. They are far enough from Jupiter that their orbits are significantly disturbed by the gravitational field of the Sun.
  • S/2003 J 12 is the innermost of the retrograde moons, and is not part of a known family.
  • The Carme group is spread over only 1.2 Gm in semi-major axis, 1.6° in inclination (165.7 ± 0.8°), and eccentricities between 0.23 and 0.27. It is very homogeneous in color (light red) and is believed to have originated from a D-type asteroid progenitor, possibly a Jupiter trojan.[20]
  • The Ananke group has a relatively wider spread than the previous groups, over 2.4 Gm in semi-major axis, 8.1° in inclination (between 145.7° and 154.8°), and eccentricities between 0.02 and 0.28. Most of the members appear gray, and are believed to have formed from the breakup of a captured asteroid.[20]
  • The Pasiphae group is quite dispersed, with a spread over 1.3 Gm, inclinations between 144.5° and 158.3°, and their eccentricities between 0.25 and 0.43.[20] The colors also vary significantly, from red to grey, which might be the result of multiple collisions. Sinope, sometimes included into Pasiphae group,[20] is red and given the difference in inclination, it could have been captured independently;[31] Pasiphae and Sinope are also trapped in secular resonances with Jupiter.[33]
  • S/2003 J 2 is the outermost moon of Jupiter, and is not part of a known family.

TableEdit

The moons of Jupiter are listed below by orbital period. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in bold. These are the four Galilean moons, which are comparable in size to Earth's Moon. The four inner moons are much smaller. The irregular captured moons are shaded light gray when prograde and dark gray when retrograde.

Order
[note 2]
Label
[note 3]
Name
Pronunciation
(key)
Image Diameter
(km)[note 4]
Mass
(×1016 kg)
Semi-major axis
(km)[34]
Orbital period
(d)[34][note 5]
Inclination
(°)[34]
Eccentricity
[21]
Discovery year
[19]
Discoverer
[19]
Group
[note 6]
1 XVI Metis ˈmiːtɨs
Metis
60×40×34 ~3.6 127,690 +7h 4m 29s 0.06°[35] 0.000 02 1979 Synnott
(Voyager 1)
Inner
2XV Adrastea ˌædrəˈstiːə
Adrastea
20×16×14 ~0.2 128,690 +7h 9m 30s 0.03°[35] 0.0015 1979 Jewitt
(Voyager 2)
Inner
3V Amalthea ˌæməlˈθiːə 250×146×128 208 181,366 +11h 57m 23s 0.374°[35] 0.0032 1892 Barnard Inner
4XIV Thebe ˈθiːbiː
Thebe
116×98×84 ~43 221,889 +16h 11m 17s 1.076°[35] 0.0175 1979 Synnott
(Voyager 1)
Inner
5I Io ˈaɪ.oʊ
Io highest resolution true color
3,660.0×3,637.4
×3,630.6
8,900,000 421,700 +1.769 137 786 0.050°[35] 0.0041 1610 Galilei Galilean
6II Europa jʊˈroʊpə
Europa-moon
3,121.6 4,800,000 671,034 +3.551 181 041 0.471°[35] 0.0094 1610 Galilei Galilean
7III Ganymede ˈgænɨmiːd
Ganymede g1 true
5,262.4 15,000,000 1,070,412 +7.154 552 96 0.204°[35] 0.0011 1610 Galilei Galilean
8IV Callisto kəˈlɪstoʊ
Callisto
4,820.6 11,000,000 1,882,709 +16.689 018 4 0.205°[35] 0.0074 1610 Galilei Galilean
9XVIII Themisto θɨˈmɪstoʊ 8 0.069 7,393,216 +129.87 45.762° 0.2115 1975/2000 Kowal & Roemer/
Sheppard et al.
Themisto
10XIII Leda ˈliːdə 16 0.6 11,187,781 +241.75 27.562° 0.1673 1974 Kowal Himalia
11VI Himalia haɪˈmeɪliə 170 670 11,451,971 +250.37 30.486° 0.1513 1904 Perrine Himalia
12X Lysithea laɪˈsɪθiːə 36 6.3 11,740,560 +259.89 27.006° 0.1322 1938 Nicholson Himalia
13VII Elara ˈɛlərə 86 87 11,778,034 +261.14 29.691° 0.1948 1905 Perrine Himalia
14 S/2000 J 11 4 0.009 0 12 570 424 +287.93 27.584° 0.2058 2001 Sheppard et al. Himalia
15XLVI Carpo ˈkɑrpoʊ 3 0.004 5 17,144,873 +458.62 56.001° 0.2735 2003 Sheppard et al. Carpo
16 S/2003 J 12 1 0.000 15 17,739,539 −482.69 142.680° 0.4449 2003 Sheppard et al. ?
17XXXIV Euporie juːˈpoʊrɨ.iː 2 0.001 5 19,088,434 −538.78 144.694° 0.0960 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
18 S/2003 J 3 2 0.001 5 19,621,780 −561.52 146.363° 0.2507 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
19 S/2003 J 18 2 0.001 5 19,812,577 −569.73 147.401° 0.1569 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
20XLII Thelxinoe θɛlkˈsɪnoʊ.iː 2 0.001 5 20,453,753 −597.61 151.292° 0.2684 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
21XXXIII Euanthe juːˈænθiː 3 0.004 5 20,464,854 −598.09 143.409° 0.2000 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
22XLV Helike ˈhɛlɨkiː 4 0.009 0 20,540,266 −601.40 154.586° 0.1374 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
23XXXV Orthosie ɔrˈθɒsɨ.iː 2 0.001 5 20,567,971 −602.62 142.366° 0.2433 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
24XXIV Iocaste ˌaɪ.əˈkæstiː 5 0.019 20,722,566 −609.43 147.248° 0.2874 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
25 S/2003 J 16 2 0.001 5 20,743,779 −610.36 150.769° 0.3184 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
26XXVII Praxidike prækˈsɪdɨkiː 7 0.043 20,823,948 −613.90 144.205° 0.1840 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
27XXII Harpalyke hɑrˈpælɨkiː 4 0.012 21,063,814 −624.54 147.223° 0.2440 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
28XL Mneme ˈniːmiː 2 0.001 5 21,129,786 −627.48 149.732° 0.3169 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
29XXX Hermippe hɚˈmɪpiː 4 0.009 0 21,182,086 −629.81 151.242° 0.2290 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke?
30XXIX Thyone θaɪˈoʊniː 4 0.009 0 21,405,570 −639.80 147.276° 0.2525 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
31XII Ananke əˈnæŋkiː 28 3.0 21,454,952 −642.02 151.564° 0.3445 1951 Nicholson Ananke
32 S/2003 J 17 2 0.001 5 22,134,306 −672.75 162.490° 0.2379 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
33XXXI Aitne ˈaɪtniː 3 0.004 5 22,285,161 −679.64 165.562° 0.3927 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
34XXXVII Kale ˈkeɪliː 2 0.001 5 22,409,207 −685.32 165.378° 0.2011 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
35XX Taygete teiˈɪdʒɨtiː 5 0.016 22,438,648 −686.67 164.890° 0.3678 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
36 S/2003 J 19 2 0.001 5 22,709,061 −699.12 164.727° 0.1961 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
37XXI Chaldene kælˈdiːniː 4 0.007 5 22,713,444 −699.33 167.070° 0.2916 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
38 S/2003 J 15 2 0.001 5 22,720,999 −699.68 141.812° 0.0932 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke?
39 S/2003 J 10 2 0.001 5 22,730,813 −700.13 163.813° 0.3438 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme?
40 S/2003 J 23 2 0.001 5 22,739,654 −700.54 148.849° 0.3930 2004 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
41XXV Erinome ɨˈrɪnəmiː 3 0.004 5 22,986,266 −711.96 163.737° 0.2552 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
42XLI Aoede eɪˈiːdiː 4 0.009 0 23,044,175 −714.66 160.482° 0.6011 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
43XLIV Kallichore kəˈlɪkəriː 2 0.001 5 23,111,823 −717.81 164.605° 0.2041 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme?
44XXIII Kalyke ˈkælɨkiː 5 0.019 23,180,773 −721.02 165.505° 0.2139 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
45XI Carme ˈkɑrmiː 46 13 23,197,992 −721.82 165.047° 0.2342 1938 Nicholson Carme
46XVII Callirrhoe kəˈlɪroʊ.iː 9 0.087 23,214,986 −722.62 139.849° 0.2582 2000 Gladman et al. Pasiphaë
47XXXII Eurydome jʊˈrɪdəmiː 3 0.004 5 23,230,858 −723.36 149.324° 0.3769 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë?
48XXXVIII Pasithee pəˈsɪθɨ.iː 2 0.001 5 23,307,318 −726.93 165.759° 0.3288 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
49 XLIX Kore ˈkoʊriː 2 0.001 5 23,345,093 −776.02 137.371° 0.1951 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
50XLVIII Cyllene sɨˈliːniː 2 0.001 5 23,396,269 −731.10 140.148° 0.4115 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
51XLVII Eukelade juːˈkɛlədiː 4 0.009 0 23,483,694 −735.20 163.996° 0.2828 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
52 S/2003 J 4 2 0.001 5 23,570,790 −739.29 147.175° 0.3003 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
53VIII Pasiphaë pəˈsɪfeɪ.iː 60 30 23,609,042 −741.09 141.803° 0.3743 1908 Gladman et al. Pasiphaë
54XXXIX Hegemone hɨˈdʒɛməniː 3 0.004 5 23,702,511 −745.50 152.506° 0.4077 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
55XLIII Arche ˈɑrkiː 3 0.004 5 23,717,051 −746.19 164.587° 0.1492 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
56XXVI Isonoe aɪˈsɒnoʊ.iː 4 0.007 5 23,800,647 −750.13 165.127° 0.1775 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
57 S/2003 J 9 1 0.000 15 23,857,808 −752.84 164.980° 0.2761 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
58 S/2003 J 5 4 0.009 0 23,973,926 −758.34 165.549° 0.3070 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
59IX Sinope sɨˈnoʊpiː 38 7.5 24,057,865 −762.33 153.778° 0.2750 1914 Nicholson Pasiphaë
60XXXVI Sponde ˈspɒndiː 2 0.001 5 24,252,627 −771.60 154.372° 0.4431 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
61XXVIIIAutonoe ɔːˈtɒnoʊ.iː 4 0.009 0 24,264,445 −772.17 151.058° 0.3690 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
62XIX Megaclite ˌmɛgəˈklaɪtiː 5 0.021 24,687,239 −792.44 150.398° 0.3077 2001 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
63 S/2003 J 2 2 0.001 5 30,290,846 −1 077.02 153.521° 0.1882 2003 Sheppard et al. ?

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Jupiter Mass of 1.898 × 1027 kg / Mass of Galilean moons 3.93 × 1023 kg = 4,828
  2. Order refers to the position among other moons with respect to their average distance from Jupiter.
  3. Label refers to the Roman numeral attributed to each moon in order of their discovery.
  4. Diameters with multiple entries such as "60×40×34" reflect that the body is not a perfect spheroid and that each of its dimensions have been measured well enough.
  5. Periods with negative values are retrograde.
  6. "?" refers to group assignments that are not considered sure yet.

ReferencesEdit

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Canup, Robert M.; Ward, William R. (2009). "Origin of Europa and the Galilean Satellites". Europa, University of Arizona Press (in press), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008arXiv0812.4995C. 
  3. Alibert, Y.; Mousis, O. and Benz, W. (2005). "Modeling the Jovian subnebula I. Thermodynamic conditions and migration of proto-satellites". Astronomy & Astrophysics 439: 1205–13. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20052841, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...439.1205A. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Chown, Marcus (2009-03-07). "Cannibalistic Jupiter ate its early moons". New Scientist. Retrieved on 2009-03-18.
  5. Jewitt, David; Haghighipour, Nader (2007). "Irregular Satellites of the Planets: Products of Capture in the Early Solar System" (pdf). Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 45: 261–95. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.44.051905.092459, http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~jewitt/papers/2007/JH07.pdf. 
  6. Xi, Zezong Z. (1981). "The Discovery of Jupiter's Satellite Made by Gan De 2000 years Before Galileo". Acta Astrophysica Sinica 1 (2): 87. 
  7. Galilei, Galileo (1989). Translated and prefaced by Albert Van Helden. ed.. Sidereus Nuncius. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 0226279030. 
  8. Van Helden, Albert (March 1974). "The Telescope in the Seventeenth Century". Isis (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society) 65 (1): 38–58. doi:10.1086/351216. 
  9. Barnard, E. E. (1892). "Discovery and Observation of a Fifth Satellite to Jupiter". Astronomical Journal 12: 81–85. doi:10.1086/101715, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/AJ.../0012//0000081.000.html. 
  10. "Discovery of a Sixth Satellite of Jupiter". Astronomical Journal 24 (18): 154B;. 1905-01-9. doi:10.1086/103654, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/AJ.../0024//0000154I002.html. 
  11. Perrine, C. D. (1905). "The Seventh Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 17 (101): 62–63, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/PASP./0017//0000062.000.html. 
  12. Melotte, P. J. (1908). "Note on the Newly Discovered Eighth Satellite of Jupiter, Photographed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 68 (6): 456–457, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1908MNRAS..68..456.&db_key=AST&link_type=ABSTRACT&high=40daf3f6f927275. 
  13. Nicholson, S. B. (1914). "Discovery of the Ninth Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 26: pp. 197–198. doi:10.1086/122336, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/PASP./0026//0000197.000.html. 
  14. Nicholson, S.B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 50: 292–293. doi:10.1086/124963, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/PASP./0050//0000292.000.html. 
  15. Nicholson, S. B. (1951). "An unidentified object near Jupiter, probably a new satellite". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 63 (375): 297–299. doi:10.1086/126402, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/PASP./0063//0000297.000.html. 
  16. Kowal, C. T.; Aksnes, K.; Marsden, B. G.; and Roemer, E. (1974). "Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter". Astronomical Journal 80: pp. 460–464. doi:10.1086/111766, http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/AJ.../0080//0000460.000.html. 
  17. Marsden, Brian G. (3 October 1975). "Probable New Satellite of Jupiter" (discovery telegram sent to the IAU). International Astronomical Union Circulars (Cambridge, US: Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory) 2845, http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iauc/02800/02845.html. Retrieved on 3 September 2008. 
  18. Synnott, S.P. (1980). "1979J2: The Discovery of a Previously Unknown Jovian Satellite". Science 210 (4471): 786–788. doi:10.1126/science.210.4471.786. PMID 17739548. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). U.S. Geological Survey (2008-11-07). Retrieved on 2008-08-02.
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External linksEdit

Template:Featured listals:Liste der Jupitermonde ast:Satélites de Xúpiter be-x-old:Спадарожнікі Юпітэра bs:Jupiterovi prirodni sateliti br:Loarennoù Yaou bg:Естествени спътници на Юпитер ca:Satèl·lits de Júpiter cs:Měsíce Jupiteru da:Jupiters månerel:Δορυφόροι του Δία es:Satélites de Júpiter eo:Listo da jupiteraj lunoj eu:Jupiterren satelite fa:فهرست ماه‌های مشتری fr:Satellites naturels de Jupiterhr:Jupiterovi prirodni sateliti ilo:Bulbulan iti Jupiter it:Satelliti naturali di Giove ka:იუპიტერის ბუნებრივი თანამგზავრები lv:Jupitera pavadoņi lb:Jupitermounden lt:Jupiterio palydovai nah:Huēyitzitzimicītlalli īmētz nl:Lijst van manen van Jupiterno:Jupiters måner nn:Jupitermånane nds:List von de Jupiter-Maanden pl:Lista naturalnych satelitów Jowisza pt:Satélites naturais de Júpiter ro:Sateliţii naturali ai lui Jupiter ru:Спутники Юпитера simple:List of Jupiter's moons sk:Mesiace Jupitera sl:Jupitrovi naravni sateliti sr:Јупитерови природни сателити sh:Jupiterovi prirodni sateliti fi:Jupiterin kuut sv:Jupiters naturliga satelliter th:ดวงจันทร์ของดาวพฤหัสบดี tg:Радифҳои Муштарӣ tr:Jüpiter'in doğal uyduları uk:Супутники Юпітера

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