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Haumea (dwarf planet)

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Haumea, formal designation (136108) Haumea, is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt. Its mass is one-third the mass of Pluto.[note 1] It was discovered in 2004 by a team headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory in the United States and, in 2005, by a team headed by J. L. Ortiz at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain, though the latter claim has been contested. On September 17, 2008, it was accepted as a dwarf planet by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and named after Haumea, the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth.

Haumea's extreme elongation makes it unique among known trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Although its shape has not been directly observed, calculations from its light curve suggest it is an ellipsoid, with its greatest axis twice as long as its shortest. Nonetheless, its gravity is believed sufficient for it to have relaxed into hydrostatic equilibrium, thereby meeting the definition of a dwarf planet. This elongation, along with its unusually rapid rotation, high density, and high albedo (from a surface of crystalline water ice), are thought to be the results of a giant collision, which left Haumea the largest member of a collisional family that includes several large TNOs and its two known moons.

ClassificationEdit

File:Haumea.GIF

Haumea is a plutoid,[1] a term used to describe dwarf planets beyond Neptune's orbit. Its status as a dwarf planet means it is presumed to be massive enough to have been rounded by its own gravity but not to have cleared its neighbourhood of similar objects. Although Haumea appears to be far from spherical, its ellipsoidal shape is thought to result from its rapid rotation, in much the same way that a water balloon stretches out when tossed with a spin, and not from a lack of sufficient gravity to overcome the compressive strength of its material.[2] Haumea was initially listed as a classical Kuiper belt object (classical KBO) in 2006 by the Minor Planet Center, but it is no longer listed as such.[3] The nominal trajectory suggests that it is in a fifth-order 12:7 resonance with Neptune[note 2] since the perihelion distance of 35 AU is near the limit of stability with Neptune.[4] Further observations of the orbit will be required to verify its dynamical status.

NameEdit

Until it was given a permanent name, the Caltech discovery team used the nickname "Santa" among themselves, as they had discovered Haumea on December 28, 2004, just after Christmas.[5] The Spanish team proposed a separate discovery to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in July 2005. On July 29, 2005, Haumea was given its first official label, the temporary designation 2003 EL61, with the "2003" based on the date of the Spanish discovery image. On September 7, 2006, it was numbered and admitted into the official minor planet catalogue as (136108) 2003 EL61.

Following guidelines established by the IAU that classical KBOs be given names of mythological beings associated with creation,[6] in September 2006 the Caltech team submitted formal names from Hawaiian mythology to the IAU for both (136108) 2003 EL61 and its moons, in order "to pay homage to the place where the satellites were discovered".[7] The names were proposed by David Rabinowitz of the Caltech team.[2] Haumea is the matron goddess of the island of Hawaiʻi, where the Mauna Kea Observatory is located. In addition, she is identified with Pāpā, the goddess of the earth and wife of Wākea (space),[8] which is appropriate because 2003 EL61 is thought to be composed almost entirely of solid rock, without the thick ice mantle over a small rocky core typical of other known Kuiper belt objects.[9][10] Lastly, Haumea is the goddess of fertility and childbirth, with many children who sprang from different parts of her body;[8] this corresponds to the swarm of icy bodies thought to have broken off the dwarf planet during an ancient collision.[10] The two known moons, also believed to have been born in this manner,[10] are thus named after two of Haumea's daughters, Hiʻiaka and Nāmaka.[9]

Discovery controversyEdit

Main article: Controversy over the discovery of Haumea

Two teams claim credit for the discovery of Haumea. Mike Brown and his team at Caltech discovered Haumea in December 2004 on images they had taken on May 6, 2004. On July 20, 2005, they published an online abstract of a report intended to announce the discovery at a conference in September 2005.[11] At around this time, José Luis Ortiz Moreno and his team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain found Haumea on images taken on March 7–10, 2003.[12] Ortiz emailed the Minor Planet Center with their discovery on the night of July 27, 2005.[12] Later on July 27, 2005 new observations from the Observatorio Astronomico de Mallorca where submited.

After sending congratulations, Brown's team subsequently found that it had inadvertently published the internal code designation (of K40506A) for their discovery (code named Santa) on July 20, 2005. Apparently, typing this code designation into internet search engines allowed other searchers to find the observation logs of Brown's team (including Santa's observed positions) at a web site containing the observing logs of the SMARTS system, where Professor Brown and his colleagues were using a SMARTS telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile to track the object. Dr. Richard W. Pogge (of Ohio State University), who maintains the SMARTS web site, subsequently used third-party web server logs to determine that the web page in question had been accessed eight times from July 26 to 28, 2005 by an IP address used by computers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía where Ortiz's team worked. These logs included enough information to allow the Ortiz team to precover Haumea and which the team used to notify the MPC of its discovery of Haumea. These logs were also used for subsequent observations, given that Ortiz have just scheduled telescope time at the Observatorio Astronomico de Mallorca to obtain confirmation images for a second announcement to the MPC on July 29 with additional precovery information.

The then director of the IAA, José Carlos del Toro, distanced himself from Ortiz, insisting that its researchers have "sole responsibility" for themselves[13]. Much later Ortiz admitted he had accessed the Caltech observation logs but denied any wrongdoing, stating he was merely verifying whether they had discovered a new object.[14]

According to an article by one of Ortiz's team members, when the original submission was made, their team still had doubts whether the object was really Transneptunian. Even when they submitted additional data to the MPC they where just "almost sure".[12]

IAU protocol is that discovery credit for a minor planet goes to whoever first submits a report to the MPC with enough positional data for a decent determination of its orbit, and that the credited discoverer has priority in choosing a name. However, the IAU announcement on September 17, 2008, that Haumea had been accepted as a dwarf planet, made no mention of a discoverer. The location of discovery was listed as the Sierra Nevada Observatory,[1][15] but the chosen name, Haumea, was the Caltech proposal. [9] [12]

OrbitEdit

[[File:TheKuiperBelt Orbits 2003EL61.svg|thumb|300px|Orbits of Haumea (yellow) and Pluto (red), relative to that of Neptune (grey), as of Template:MONTHNAME 2009[[Category:Articles containing potentially dated statements from Template:MONTHNAME 2009 ]]]] Haumea has a typical orbit for a classical Kuiper belt object, with an orbital period of 283 Earth years, a perihelion of 35 AU, and an orbital inclination of 28°.[16] It passed aphelion in early 1992,[17] and is currently more than 50 AU from the Sun.[18]

Haumea's orbit has a slightly greater eccentricity than the other members of its collisional family. This is thought to be due to Haumea's weak fifth-order[note 2] 12:7 orbital resonance with Neptune gradually modifying its initial orbit, over the course of a billion years,[10][19] through the Kozai effect, which allows the exchange of an orbit's inclination for increased eccentricity.[10][20][21]

With a visual magnitude of 17.3,[18] Haumea is the third brightest object in the Kuiper belt after Pluto and Makemake, and easily observable with a large amateur telescope.[22] However, since the planets and most small Solar System bodies share a common orbital alignment from their formation in the primordial disk of the Solar System, most early surveys for distant objects focused on the projection on the sky of this common plane, called the ecliptic.[23] As the region of sky close to the ecliptic became well explored, later sky surveys began looking for objects that had been dynamically excited into orbits with higher inclinations, as well as more distant objects, with slower mean motions across the sky.[24][25] These surveys eventually covered the location of Haumea, with its high orbital inclination and current position far from the ecliptic.

Physical characteristicsEdit

The EarthDysnomiaErisCharonPlutoMakemakeHaumeaSednaOrcusQuaoarVarunaFile:EightTNOs.pngEightTNOs

Haumea compared to Eris, Pluto, Makemake, Sedna, Orcus, Quaoar, Varuna, and Earth (all to scale).

Since Haumea has moons, the mass of the system can be calculated from their orbits using Kepler's third law. The result is 4.2×1021 kg, 28% the mass of the Plutonian system and 6% the mass of the Earth's Moon. Nearly all of this mass is in Haumea.[26]

Haumea displays large fluctuations in brightness over a period of four hours, which can only be explained by a rotational period of this length. This is faster than any other known equilibrium body in the Solar System, and indeed faster than any other known body larger than 100 km in diameter.[22] This rapid rotation is thought to have been caused by the impact that created its satellites and collisional family.[10]

Size, shape, and compositionEdit

The size of a Solar System object can be derived from its optical magnitude, its distance, and its albedo. Objects appear bright to Earth observers either because they are large or because they are highly reflective. If their reflectivity (albedo) can be ascertained, then a rough estimate can be made of their size. For most distant objects, the albedo is unknown, but Haumea is large and bright enough for its thermal emission to be measured, which has given an approximate value for its albedo and thus its size.[27] However, the calculation of its dimensions is complicated by its rapid rotation. The rotational physics of deformable bodies predicts that over as little as a hundred days,[22] a body rotating as rapidly as Haumea will have been distorted into the equilibrium form of a scalene ellipsoid. It is thought that most of the fluctuation in Haumea's brightness is caused not by local differences in albedo but by the alternation of the side view and end view as seen from Earth.[22]

File:Haumea.svg

The rotation and amplitude of Haumea's light curve place strong constraints on its composition. If Haumea had a low density like Pluto, with a thick mantle of ice over a small rocky core, its rapid rotation would have elongated it to a greater extent than the fluctuations in its brightness allow. Such considerations constrain its density to a range of 2.6–3.3 g/cm³.[22][note 3] This range covers the values for silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, which make up many of the rocky objects in the Solar System. This suggests that the bulk of Haumea is rock covered with a relatively thin layer of ice. A thick ice mantle more typical of Kuiper belt objects may have been blasted off during the impact that formed the Haumean collisional family.[10]

The denser the object in hydrostatic equilibrium, the more spherical it must be for a given rotational period, placing constraints on Haumea's possible dimensions. Fitting its accurately known mass, its rotation, and its inferred density to an equilibrium ellipsoid predicts that Haumea is approximately the diameter of Pluto along its longest axis and about half that at its poles. Since no observations of occultations of stars by Haumea or occultations of the dwarf planet with its moons have yet been made, direct, precise measurements of its dimensions, like those that have been made for Pluto, do not yet exist.

Several ellipsoid-model calculations of Haumea's dimensions have been made. The first model produced after Haumea's discovery was calculated from ground-based observations of Haumea's light curve at optical wavelengths: it provided a total length of 1,960 to 2,500 km and a visual albedo (pv) greater than 0.6.[22] This model gives approximate triaxial dimensions of 2,000 x 1,500 x 1,000 km, with an albedo of 0.73.[22] The Spitzer Space Telescope has estimated Haumea to have a diameter of 1,150 Template:± km and an albedo of 0.84 Template:±, from photometry at infrared wavelengths of 70 μm.[27] Subsequent light curve analyses have suggested an equivalent circular diameter of 1,450 km.[28] These independent size estimates overlap at an average geometric mean diameter of roughly 1,400 km. This makes Haumea one of the largest trans-Neptunian objects discovered, third or fourth after Eris, Pluto, and perhaps Makemake, and larger than Sedna, Orcus, or Quaoar.[29]

SurfaceEdit

In addition to the large fluctuations in Haumea's light curve due to the body's shape, which affect all colours equally, smaller independent colour variations seen in both visible and near-infrared wavelengths show a region on the surface that differs both in colour and in albedo.[30][31] Thus Haumea may have a mottled surface reminiscent of Pluto, if not as extreme.

In 2005, the Gemini and Keck telescopes obtained spectra of Haumea which showed strong crystalline water ice features similar to the surface of Pluto's moon Charon.[32] This is peculiar, because crystalline ice forms at temperatures above 110 K, while the surface temperature of Haumea is below 50 K, a temperature at which amorphous ice is formed.[32] In addition, the structure of crystalline ice is unstable under the constant rain of cosmic rays and energetic particles from the Sun that strike trans-Neptunian objects.[32] The timescale for the crystalline ice to revert to amorphous ice under this bombardment is on the order of ten million years,[33] while trans-Neptunian objects have been in their present cold-temperature locations for timescales of thousands of millions of years.[19] Radiation damage should also redden and darken the surface of trans-Neptunian objects where the common surface materials of organic ices and tholin-like compounds are present, as is the case with Pluto. Therefore, the spectra and colour suggest Haumea and its family members have undergone recent resurfacing that produced fresh ice. However, no plausible resurfacing mechanism has been suggested.[34]

Haumea is as bright as snow, with an albedo in the range of 0.6–0.8, consistent with crystalline ice.[22] Other large TNOs such as Eris appear to have albedos as high or higher.[35] Best-fit modeling of the surface spectra suggested that 66% to 80% of the Haumean surface appears to be pure crystalline water ice, with one contributor to the high albedo possibly hydrogen cyanide or phyllosilicate clays.[32] Inorganic cyanide salts such as copper potassium cyanide may also be present.[32]

However, further studies of the visible and near infrared spectra suggest a homomorphous surface covered by an intimate 1:1 mixture of amorphous and crystalline ice, together with no more than 8% organics. The absence of ammonia hydrate excludes cryovolcanism and the observations confirm that the collisional event must have happened more than 100 million years ago, in agreement with the dynamic studies.[36] The absence of measurable methane in the spectra of Haumea is consistent with a warm collisional history that would have removed such volatiles[32], in contrast to Makemake.[37]

MoonsEdit

Main article: Moons of Haumea
File:2003EL61art.jpg
Two small satellites have been discovered orbiting Haumea, (136108) Haumea I Hiʻiaka and (136108) Haumea II Namaka.[1] Brown's team discovered both in 2005, through observations of Haumea using the W.M. Keck Observatory.

Hiʻiaka, at first nicknamed "Rudolph" by the Caltech team,[38] was discovered January 26, 2005.[39] It is the outer and, at roughly 310 km in diameter, the larger and brighter of the two, and orbits Haumea in a nearly circular path every 49 days.[40] Strong absorption features at 1.5 and 2 micrometres in the infrared spectrum are consistent with nearly pure crystalline water ice covering much of the surface.[41] The unusual spectrum, along with similar absorption lines on Haumea, led Brown and colleagues to conclude that capture was an unlikely model for the system's formation, and that the Haumean moons must be fragments of Haumea itself.[19]

Namaka, the smaller, inner satellite of Haumea, was discovered on June 30, 2005, and nicknamed "Blitzen". It is a tenth the mass of Hiʻiaka, orbits Haumea in 18 days in a highly elliptical, non-Keplerian orbit, and as of 2008 is inclined 13° from the larger moon, which perturbs its orbit.[42] The relatively large eccentricities together with the mutual inclination of the orbits of the satellites are unexpected as they should have been damped by the tidal effects. A relatively recent passage by a (3:1) resonance might explain the current excited orbits of the Haumea moons.[43]

At present, the orbits of the Haumean moons appear almost exactly edge-on from Earth, with Namaka periodically occulting Haumea.[44] Observation of such transits would provide precise information on the size and shape of Haumea and its moons,[45] as happened in the late 1980s with Pluto and Charon.[46] The tiny change in brightness of the system during these occultations will require at least a medium-aperture professional telescope for detection.[45][47] Hiʻiaka last occulted Haumea in 1999, a few years before discovery, and will not do so again for some 130 years.[48] However, in a situation unique among regular satellites, Namaka's orbit is being greatly torqued by Hiʻiaka, preserving the viewing angle of Namaka–Haumea transits for several more years.[42][45][47]

Collisional family Edit

Main article: Haumea family

Haumea is the largest member of its collisional family, a group of astronomical objects with similar physical and orbital characteristics thought to have formed when a larger progenitor was shattered by an impact.[10] This family is the first to be identified among TNOs and includes—beside Haumea and its moons—(55636) 2002 TX300 (≈600 km), (24835) 1995 SM55 (< 700 km), (19308) 1996 TO66 (≈500 km), (120178) 2003 OP32 (< 700 km), and (145453) 2005 RR43 (< 700 km).[4] Brown et al. proposed that the family were a direct product of the impact that removed Haumea's ice mantle,[10] but a second proposal suggests a more complicated origin: that the material ejected in the initial collision instead coalesced into a large moon of Haumea, which was later shattered in a second collision, dispersing its shards outwards.[49] This second scenario appears to produce a dispersion of velocities for the fragments that is more closely matched to the measured velocity dispersion of the family members.[49]

The presence of the collisional family could imply that Haumea and its "offspring" might have originated in the scattered disc. In today's sparsely populated Kuiper belt, the chance of such a collision occurring over the age of the Solar System is less than 0.1 percent.[50] The family could not have formed in the denser primordial Kuiper belt because such a close-knit group would have been disrupted by Neptune's migration into the belt—the believed cause of the belt's current low density.[50] Therefore it appears likely that the dynamic scattered disc region, in which the possibility of such a collision is far higher, is the place of origin for the object that generated Haumea and its kin.[50]

Because it would have taken at least a billion years for the group to have diffused as far as it has, the collision which created the Haumea family is believed to have occurred very early in the Solar System's history.[4]

NotesEdit

  1. Haumea is 1400 times less massive than Earth (0.07% the mass of Earth).
  2. 2.0 2.1 In principle, the strength of a resonance is inversely proportional to the difference between the numerator and denominator, which is called its 'order'. The lower the difference (order), the stronger the resonance will be. A 12:7 resonance is fifth order (12 − 7 = 5), which is fairly weak.
  3. By comparison, Earth's rocky moon has a density of 3.3 g/cm³, while Pluto, which is typical of icy objects in the Kuiper belt, has a density of 2.0 g/cm³.

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

Template:Haumea Template:Moons of dwarf planets

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