3D model hydrogen bonds in water

model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water

Water droplet blue bg05

Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.

Spider web Luc Viatour

Dew drops adhering to a spider web

Gravitation of water might give ocean the tropical region. Temperature dependence of W6 and W5 population of water cluster had been emphasized for the explanation of the mechanism for the Evaporation of water.

Photovapor is an analogy of Photoelectron. If incindence angle of photon on the surface of water is very oblique, photovapor of Dangling bond water molecules might have antiparallel spin normal to the incidence plane.

The proton spin of hydrogens should be also antiparallel for Pair annihilation which might jet electrons. Further annihilation might happen for antiparallel spin oxygen necleus which might jet protons.

It's hard to say, secondary gravitation of water vapor pair W2 might give O2.

With CNO cycle, Oxygen gives Nitrogen.

Bulk water modelsEdit

According to the so-called in silico method quantum cluster equilibrium (QCE) theory of liquids W8 clusters dominate the liquid water bulk phase followed by W5 and W6 clusters. In order to facilitate a water triple point the presence of a W24 cluster is invoked. In another model bulk water is built up from a mixture of hexamer and pentamer rings containing cavities capable of enclosing small solutes. In yet another model an equilibrium exists between a cubic water octamer and two cyclic tetramers. However, in spite of much model making all models are unable to reproduce the experimentally observed density maximum.

Oxygen Isotopes and stellar origin Edit

Main article: Isotopes of oxygen
Evolved star fusion shells

Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell

Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O, and 18O, with 16O being the most abundant (99.762% natural abundance).[1] Oxygen isotopes range in mass number from 12 to 28.[1]

Most 16O is synthesized at the end of the helium fusion process in stars but some is made in the neon burning process.[2] 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen burning zones of stars.[2] Most 18O is produced when 14N (made abundant from CNO burning) captures a 4He nucleus, making 18O common in the helium-rich zones of stars.[2]

Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds (s) and 14O with a half-life of 70.606 s.[1] All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 27 s and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 83 milliseconds.[1] The most common decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 16O is electron capture to yield nitrogen, and the most common mode for the isotopes heavier than 18O is beta decay to yield fluorine.[1]

Isotopes of NitrogenEdit

There are two stable isotopes of nitrogen: 14N and 15N. By far the most common is 14N (99.634%), which is produced in the CNO cycle in stars. Of the ten isotopes produced synthetically, 13N has a half life of ten minutes and the remaining isotopes have half lives on the order of seconds or less. Biologically-mediated reactions (e.g., assimilation, nitrification, and denitrification) strongly control nitrogen dynamics in the soil. These reactions typically result in 15N enrichment of the substrate and depletion of the product.

0.73% of the molecular nitrogen in Earth's atmosphere is comprised of the isotopologue 14N15N and almost all the rest is 14N2.

Radioisotope 16N is the dominant radionuclide in the coolant of pressurized water reactors during normal operation. It is produced from 16O (in water) via (n,p) reaction. It has a short half-life of about 7.1 s, but during its decay back to 16O produces high-energy gamma radiation (5 to 7 MeV). Because of this, the access to the primary coolant piping must be restricted during reactor power operation[3]. 16N is one of the main means used to immediately detect even small leaks from the primary coolant to the secondary steam cycle.


Bay of Fundy High TideBay of Fundy Low Tide
High tide (left) and low tide (right).
Main article: Tide

Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earth's ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides.

See alsoEdit


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes". Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Meyer 2005, 9022
  3. Karl Heinz Neeb, "The Radiochemistry of Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-New York, 1997.

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