Earth (pronounced /ɝːθ/ (help·info)) is the third planet from the Sun. Earth is the largest of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System in diameter, mass and density. It is also referred to as the World and Terra.[note 1]
Home to millions of species, including humans, Earth is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist. The planet formed 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within a billion years. Since then, Earth's biosphere has significantly altered the atmosphere and other abiotic conditions on the planet, enabling the proliferation of aerobic organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer which, together with Earth's magnetic field, blocks harmful radiation, permitting life on land. The physical properties of the Earth, as well as its geological history and orbit, allowed life to persist during this period. The world is expected to continue supporting life for another 1.5 billion years, after which the rising luminosity of the Sun will eliminate the biosphere.
Earth's outer surface is divided into several rigid segments, or tectonic plates, that gradually migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of the surface is covered with salt-water oceans, the remainder consisting of continents and islands; liquid water, necessary for all known life, is not known to exist on any other planet's surface.[note 2][note 3] Earth's interior remains active, with a thick layer of relatively solid mantle, a liquid outer core that generates a magnetic field, and a solid iron inner core.
Earth interacts with other objects in outer space, including the Sun and the Moon. At present, Earth orbits the Sun once for every roughly 366.26 times it rotates about its axis. This length of time is a sidereal year, which is equal to 365.26 solar days.[note 4] The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular to its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days). Earth's only known natural satellite, the Moon, which began orbiting it about 4.53 billion years ago, provides ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt and gradually slows the planet's rotation. A cometary bombardment during the early history of the planet played a role in the formation of the oceans. Later, asteroid impacts caused significant changes to the surface environment.
Both the mineral resources of the planet, as well as the products of the biosphere, contribute resources that are used to support a global human population. The inhabitants are grouped into about 200 independent sovereign states, which interact through diplomacy, travel, trade and military action. Human cultures have developed many views of the planet, including personification as a deity, a belief in a flat Earth, and a modern perspective of the world as an integrated environment that requires stewardship. Humans first left the planet in 1961, when Yuri Gagarin reached outer space.
- Main article: History of the Earth
Scientists have been able to reconstruct detailed information about the planet's past. About 4.54 billion years ago (within an uncertainty of 1%), the Earth and the other planets in the Solar System formed out of the solar nebula—a disk-shaped mass of dust and gas left over from the formation of the Sun. This assembly of the Earth through accretion was largely completed within 10–20 million years. Initially molten, the outer layer of the planet Earth cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed soon afterward, possibly as the result of a Mars-sized object (sometimes called Theia) with about 10% of the Earth's mass impacting the Earth in a glancing blow. Some of this object's mass would have merged with the Earth and a portion would have been ejected into space, but enough material would have been sent into orbit to form the Moon.
Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice and liquid water delivered by asteroids and the larger proto-planets, comets, and trans-Neptunian objects produced the oceans. Beginning with almost no dry land, the total amount of surface lying above the oceans has steadily increased. During the past two billion years, for example, the total size of the continents has doubled. On time scales lasting hundreds of millions of years, the surface continually reshaped itself as continents formed and broke up. The continents migrated across the surface, occasionally combining to form a supercontinent. Roughly 750 million years ago (mya), one the earliest known supercontinents, Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia, 600–540 mya, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart 180 mya.
Evolution of lifeEdit
- Main article: Evolutionary history of life
Highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago, and half a billion years later the last common ancestor of all life existed. The development of photosynthesis allowed the Sun's energy to be harvested directly by life forms; the resultant oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere and formed in a layer of ozone (a form of molecular oxygen [O3]) in the upper atmosphere. The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes. True multicellular organisms formed as cells within colonies became increasingly specialized. Aided by the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, life colonized the surface of Earth.
Since the 1960s, it has been hypothesized that severe glacial action between 750 and 580 mya, during the Neoproterozoic, covered much of the planet in a sheet of ice. This hypothesis has been termed "Snowball Earth", and is of particular interest because it preceded the Cambrian explosion, when multicellular life forms began to proliferate.
Following the Cambrian explosion, about 535 mya, there have been five mass extinctions. The last extinction event was 65 mya, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the (non-avian) dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals, which then resembled shrews. Over the past 65 million years, mammalian life has diversified, and several mya, an African ape-like animal gained the ability to stand upright. This enabled tool use and encouraged communication that provided the nutrition and stimulation needed for a larger brain. The development of agriculture, and then civilization, allowed humans to influence the Earth in a short time span as no other life form had, affecting both the nature and quantity of other life forms.
The present pattern of ice ages began about 40 mya and then intensified during the Pleistocene about 3 mya. The polar regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating every 40–100,000 years. The last ice age ended 10,000 years ago.
The future of the planet is closely tied to that of the Sun. As a result of the steady accumulation of helium ash at the Sun's core, the star's total luminosity will slowly increase. The luminosity of the Sun will grow by 10 percent over the next 1.1 Gyr (1.1 billion years) and by 40% over the next 3.5 Gyr. Climate models indicate that the rise in radiation reaching the Earth is likely to have dire consequences, including the possible loss of the planet's oceans.
The Earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic CO2 cycle, reducing its concentration to the lethal levels for plants (10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in 900 million years. The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, so animal life will become extinct within several million more years. But even if the Sun were eternal and stable, the continued internal cooling of the Earth would have resulted in a loss of much of its atmosphere and oceans due to reduced volcanism. After another billion years all surface water will have disappeared and the mean global temperature will reach 70°C. The Earth is expected to be effectively habitable for about another 500 million years.
The Sun, as part of its evolution, will become a red giant in about 5 Gyr. Models predict that the Sun will expand out to about 250 times its present size, roughly 1 AU (Template:Convert/LonAonSoff). Earth's fate is less clear. As a red giant, the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its mass, so, without tidal effects, the Earth will move to an orbit 1.7 AU (Template:Rnd/c6dec0 km) from the Sun when the star reaches it maximum radius. Therefore, the planet is expected to escape envelopment by the expanded Sun's sparse outer atmosphere, though most, if not all, remaining life will be destroyed because of the Sun's increased luminosity. However, a more recent simulation indicates that Earth's orbit will decay due to tidal effects and drag, causing it to enter the red giant Sun's atmosphere and be destroyed.
Composition and structureEdit
Earth is a terrestrial planet, meaning that it is a rocky body, rather than a gas giant like Jupiter. It is the largest of the four solar terrestrial planets, both in terms of size and mass. Of these four planets, Earth also has the highest density, the highest surface gravity, the strongest magnetic field, and fastest rotation. It also is the only terrestrial planet with active plate tectonics.
- Main article: Figure of the Earth
The Earth's shape is very close to an oblate spheroid—a rounded shape with a bulge around the equator—although the precise shape (the geoid) varies from this by up to 100 meters. The average diameter of the reference spheroid is about 12,742 km. More approximately, this distance is 40,000 km/π because the meter was originally defined as 1/10,000,000 of the distance from the equator to the north pole through Paris, France.
The rotation of the Earth creates the equatorial bulge so that the diameter at the equator is 43 km larger than the pole to pole diameter. The largest local deviations in the rocky surface of the Earth are Mount Everest (8,848 m above local sea level) and the Mariana Trench (10,911 m below local sea level). Hence compared to a perfect ellipsoid, the Earth has a tolerance of about one part in about 584, or 0.17%, which is less than the 0.22% tolerance allowed in billiard balls. Because of the bulge, the feature farthest from the center of the Earth is actually Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador.
The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98×1024 kg. It is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminum (1.4%); with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. Due to mass segregation, the core region is believed to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of nickel (5.8%), sulfur (4.5%), and less than 1% trace elements.
The geochemist F. W. Clarke calculated that a little more than 47% of the Earth's crust consists of oxygen. The more common rock constituents of the Earth's crust are nearly all oxides; chlorine, sulfur and fluorine are the only important exceptions to this and their total amount in any rock is usually much less than 1%. The principal oxides are silica, alumina, iron oxides, lime, magnesia, potash and soda. The silica functions principally as an acid, forming silicates, and all the commonest minerals of igneous rocks are of this nature. From a computation based on 1,672 analyses of all kinds of rocks, Clarke deduced that 99.22% were composed of 11 oxides (see the table at right.) All the other constituents occur only in very small quantities.[note 5]
- Main article: Structure of the Earth
The interior of the Earth, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is divided into layers by their chemical or rheological properties. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. The crust is separated from the mantle by the Mohorovičić discontinuity, and the thickness of the crust varies: averaging 6 km under the oceans and 30–50 km on the continents. The inner core may rotate at a slightly higher angular velocity than the remainder of the planet, advancing by 0.1–0.5° per year.
Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. Not to scale.
|0–35||... Crust[note 7]||2.2–2.9|
|35–60||... Upper mantle||3.4–4.4|
The internal heat of the planet is probably produced by the radioactive decay of potassium-40, uranium-238 and thorium-232 isotopes. All three have half-life decay periods of more than a billion years. At the center of the planet, the temperature may be up to 7,000 K and the pressure could reach 360 GPa. A portion of the core's thermal energy is transported toward the crust by Mantle plumes; a form of convection consisting of upwellings of higher-temperature rock. These plumes can produce hotspots and flood basalts.
- Main article: Plate tectonics
According to plate tectonics theory, the outermost part of the Earth's interior is made up of two layers: the lithosphere, comprising the crust, and the solidified uppermost part of the mantle. Below the lithosphere lies the asthenosphere, which forms the inner part of the upper mantle. The asthenosphere behaves like a superheated material that is in a semi-fluidic, plastic-like state.
The lithosphere essentially floats on the asthenosphere and is broken up into what are called tectonic plates. These plates are rigid segments that move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries: convergent, divergent and transform. The last occurs where two plates move laterally relative to each other, creating a strike-slip fault. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation can occur along these plate boundaries.
A map illustrating the Earth's major plates.
|North American Plate||75.9|
|South American Plate||43.6|
Notable minor plates include the Indian Plate, the Arabian Plate, the Caribbean Plate, the Nazca Plate off the west coast of South America and the Scotia Plate in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The Australian Plate actually fused with Indian Plate between 50 and 55 million years ago. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/yr and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/yr. At the other extreme, the slowest-moving plate is the Eurasian Plate, progressing at a typical rate of about 21 mm/yr.
- Main article: Landform
The Earth's terrain varies greatly from place to place. About 70.8% of the surface is covered by water, with much of the continental shelf below sea level. The submerged surface has mountainous features, including a globe-spanning mid-ocean ridge system, as well as undersea volcanoes, oceanic trenches, submarine canyons, oceanic plateaus and abyssal plains. The remaining 29.2% not covered by water consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other geomorphologies.
The planetary surface undergoes reshaping over geological time periods due to the effects of tectonics and erosion. The surface features built up or deformed through plate tectonics are subject to steady weathering from precipitation, thermal cycles, and chemical effects. Glaciation, coastal erosion, the build-up of coral reefs, and large meteorite impacts also act to reshape the landscape.
As the tectonic plates migrate across the planet, the ocean floor is subducted under the leading edges. At the same time, upwellings of mantle material create a divergent boundary along mid-ocean ridges. The combination of these processes continually recycles the oceanic crustal material. Most of the ocean floor is less than 100 million years in age. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific, and has an estimated age of about 200 million years. By comparison, the oldest fossils found on land have an age of about 3 billion years.
The continental crust consists of lower density material such as the igneous rocks granite and andesite. Less common is basalt, a denser volcanic rock that is the primary constituent of the ocean floors. Sedimentary rock is formed from the accumulation of sediment that becomes compacted together. Nearly 75% of the continental surfaces are covered by sedimentary rocks, although they form only about 5% of the crust. The third form of rock material found on Earth is metamorphic rock, which is created from the transformation of pre-existing rock types through high pressures, high temperatures, or both. The most abundant silicate minerals on the Earth's surface include quartz, the feldspars, amphibole, mica, pyroxene and olivine. Common carbonate minerals include calcite (found in limestone), aragonite and dolomite.
The pedosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. It exists at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Currently the total arable land is 13.31% of the land surface, with only 4.71% supporting permanent crops.Close to 40% of the Earth's land surface is presently used for cropland and pasture, or an estimated 1.3×107 km² of cropland and 3.4×107 km² of pastureland.
The elevation of the land surface of the Earth varies from the low point of −418 m at the Dead Sea, to a 2005-estimated maximum altitude of 8,848 m at the top of Mount Everest. The mean height of land above sea level is 840 m.
- Main article: Hydrosphere
The abundance of water on Earth's surface is a unique feature that distinguishes the "Blue Planet" from others in the solar system. The Earth's hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters down to a depth of 2,000 m. The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of −10,911.4 m.[note 8] The average depth of the oceans is 3,800 m, more than four times the average height of the continents.
The mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of the total mass of the Earth, and occupies a volume of 1.386×109 km³. If all of the land on Earth were spread evenly, water would rise to an altitude of more than 2.7 km.[note 9] About 97.5% of the water is saline, while the remaining 2.5% is fresh water. The majority of the fresh water, about 68.7%, is currently in the form of ice.
About 3.5% of the total mass of the oceans consists of salt. Most of this salt was released from volcanic activity or extracted from cool, igneous rocks. The oceans are also a reservoir of dissolved atmospheric gases, which are essential for the survival of many aquatic life forms. Sea water has an important influence on the world's climate, with the oceans acting as a large heat reservoir. Shifts in the oceanic temperature distribution can cause significant weather shifts, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
- Main article: Earth's atmosphere
The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth averages 101.325 kPa, with a scale height of about 8.5 km. It is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules. The height of the troposphere varies with latitude, ranging between 8 km at the poles to 17 km at the equator, with some variation due to weather and seasonal factors.
Earth's biosphere has significantly altered its atmosphere. Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved 2.7 billion years ago, forming the primarily nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere that exists today. This change enabled the proliferation of aerobic organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer which, together with Earth's magnetic field, blocks ultraviolet solar radiation, permitting life on land. Other atmospheric functions important to life on Earth include transporting water vapor, providing useful gases, causing small meteors to burn up before they strike the surface, and moderating temperature. This last phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect: trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the ground, thereby raising the average temperature. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Without this heat-retention effect, the average surface temperature would be −18 °C and life would likely not exist.
Weather and climateEdit
- Main article: Weather
The Earth's atmosphere has no definite boundary, slowly becoming thinner and fading into outer space. Three-quarters of the atmosphere's mass is contained within the first 11 km of the planet's surface. This lowest layer is called the troposphere. Energy from the Sun heats this layer, and the surface below, causing expansion of the air. This lower density air then rises, and is replaced by cooler, higher density air. The result is atmospheric circulation that drives the weather and climate through redistribution of heat energy.
The primary atmospheric circulation bands consist of the trade winds in the equatorial region below 30° latitude and the westerlies in the mid-latitudes between 30° and 60°. Ocean currents are also important factors in determining climate, particularly the thermohaline circulation that distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions.
Water vapor generated through surface evaporation is transported by circulatory patterns in the atmosphere. When atmospheric conditions permit an uplift of warm, humid air, this water condenses and settles to the surface as precipitation. Most of the water is then transported back to lower elevations by river systems, usually returning to the oceans or being deposited into lakes. This water cycle is a vital mechanism for supporting life on land, and is a primary factor in the erosion of surface features over geological periods. Precipitation patterns vary widely, ranging from several meters of water per year to less than a millimeter. Atmospheric circulation, topological features and temperature differences determine the average precipitation that falls in each region.
The Earth can be sub-divided into specific latitudinal belts of approximately homogeneous climate. Ranging from the equator to the polar regions, these are the tropical (or equatorial), subtropical, temperate and polar climates. Climate can also be classified based on the temperature and precipitation, with the climate regions characterized by fairly uniform air masses. The commonly used Köppen climate classification system (as modified by Wladimir Köppen's student Rudolph Geiger) has five broad groups (humid tropics, arid, humid middle latitudes, continental and cold polar), which are further divided into more specific subtypes.
Above the troposphere, the atmosphere is usually divided into the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Each of these layers has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. Beyond these, the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere. This is where the Earth's magnetic fields interact with the solar wind. An important part of the atmosphere for life on Earth is the ozone layer, a component of the stratosphere that partially shields the surface from ultraviolet light. The Kármán line, defined as 100 km above the Earth's surface, is a working definition for the boundary between atmosphere and space.
Due to thermal energy, some of the molecules at the outer edge of the Earth's atmosphere have their velocity increased to the point where they can escape from the planet's gravity. This results in a slow but steady leakage of the atmosphere into space. Because unfixed hydrogen has a low molecular weight, it can achieve escape velocity more readily and it leaks into outer space at a greater rate than other gasses. The leakage of hydrogen into space is a contributing factor in pushing the Earth from an initially reducing state to its current oxidizing one. Photosynthesis provided a source of free oxygen, but the loss of reducing agents such as hydrogen is believed to have been a necessary precondition for the widespread accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere. Hence the ability of hydrogen to escape from the Earth's atmosphere may have influenced the nature of life which developed on the planet. In the current, oxygen-rich atmosphere most hydrogen is converted into water before it has an opportunity to escape. Instead, most of the hydrogen loss comes from the destruction of methane in the upper atmosphere.
- Main article: Earth's magnetic field
The Earth's magnetic field is shaped roughly as a magnetic dipole, with the poles currently located proximate to the planet's geographic poles. According to dynamo theory, the field is generated within the molten outer core region where heat creates convection motions of conducting materials, generating electric currents. These in turn produce the Earth's magnetic field. The convection movements in the core are chaotic in nature, and periodically change alignment. This results in field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. The most recent reversal occurred approximately 700,000 years ago.
The field forms the magnetosphere, which deflects particles in the solar wind. The sunward edge of the bow shock is located at about 13 times the radius of the Earth. The collision between the magnetic field and the solar wind forms the Van Allen radiation belts, a pair of concentric, torus-shaped regions of energetic charged particles. When the plasma enters the Earth's atmosphere at the magnetic poles, it forms the aurora.
Orbit and rotationEdit
- Main article: Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation period relative to the Sun—its mean solar day—is 86,400 seconds of mean solar time. Each of these seconds is slightly longer than an SI second because Earth's solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal acceleration.
Earth's rotation period relative to the fixed stars, called its stellar day by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), is 86164.098903691 seconds of mean solar time (UT1), or 23h 56m 4.098903691s. [note 10] Earth's rotation period relative to the precessing or moving mean vernal equinox, misnamed its sidereal day, is 86164.09053083288 seconds of mean solar time (UT1) (23h 56m 4.09053083288s). Thus the sidereal day is shorter than the stellar day by about 8.4 ms. The length of the mean solar day in SI seconds is available from the IERS for the periods 1623–2005 and 1962–2005.
Apart from meteors within the atmosphere and low-orbiting satellites, the main apparent motion of celestial bodies in the Earth's sky is to the west at a rate of 15°/h = 15'/min. This is equivalent to an apparent diameter of the Sun or Moon every two minutes; the apparent sizes of the Sun and the Moon are approximately the same.
- Main article: Earth's orbit
Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 150 million kilometers every 365.2564 mean solar days, or one sidereal year. From Earth, this gives an apparent movement of the Sun eastward with respect to the stars at a rate of about 1°/day, or a Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours. Because of this motion, on average it takes 24 hours—a solar day—for Earth to complete a full rotation about its axis so that the Sun returns to the meridian. The orbital speed of the Earth averages about 30 km/s (108,000 km/h), which is fast enough to cover the planet's diameter (about 12,600 km) in seven minutes, and the distance to the Moon (384,000 km) in four hours.
The Moon revolves with the Earth around a common barycenter every 27.32 days relative to the background stars. When combined with the Earth–Moon system's common revolution around the Sun, the period of the synodic month, from new moon to new moon, is 29.53 days. Viewed from the celestial north pole, the motion of Earth, the Moon and their axial rotations are all counter-clockwise. Viewed from a vantage point above the north poles of both the Sun and the Earth, the Earth appears to revolve in a counterclockwise direction about the Sun. The orbital and axial planes are not precisely aligned: Earth's axis is tilted some 23.5 degrees from the perpendicular to the Earth–Sun plane, and the Earth–Moon plane is tilted about 5 degrees against the Earth-Sun plane. Without this tilt, there would be an eclipse every two weeks, alternating between lunar eclipses and solar eclipses.
The Hill sphere, or gravitational sphere of influence, of the Earth is about 1.5 Gm (or 1,500,000 kilometers) in radius.[note 11] This is maximum distance at which the Earth's gravitational influence is stronger than the more distant Sun and planets. Objects must orbit the Earth within this radius, or they can become unbound by the gravitational perturbation of the Sun.
Earth, along with the Solar System, is situated in the Milky Way galaxy, orbiting about 28,000 light years from the center of the galaxy, and about 20 light years above the galaxy's equatorial plane in the Orion spiral arm.
Axial tilt and seasonsEdit
- Main article: Axial tilt
Because of the axial tilt of the Earth, the amount of sunlight reaching the surface varies over the course of the year. This results in seasonal change in climate, with summer in the northern hemisphere occuring when the north pole is pointing toward the Sun, and winter taking place when the pole is pointed away. During the summer, the day lasts longer and the Sun climbs higher in the sky. In winter, the climate becomes generally cooler and the days shorter. Above the arctic circle, an extreme case is reached where there is no daylight at all for part of the year—a polar night. In the southern hemisphere the situation is exactly reversed, with the south pole oriented opposite the direction of the north pole.
By astronomical convention, the four seasons are determined by the solstices—the point in the orbit of maximum axial tilt toward or away from the Sun—and the equinoxes, when the direction of the tilt and the direction to the Sun are perpendicular. Winter solstice occurs on about December 21, summer solstice is near June 21, spring equinox is around March 20 and autumnal equinox is about September 23.
The angle of the Earth's tilt is relatively stable over long periods of time. However, the tilt does undergo nutation; a slight, irregular motion with a main period of 18.6 years. The orientation (rather than the angle) of the Earth's axis also changes over time, precessing around in a complete circle over each 25,800 year cycle; this precession is the reason for the difference between a sidereal year and a tropical year. Both of these motions are caused by the varying attraction of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. From the perspective of the Earth, the poles also migrate a few meters across the surface. This polar motion has multiple, cyclical components, which collectively are termed quasiperiodic motion. In addition to an annual component to this motion, there is a 14-month cycle called the Chandler wobble. The rotational velocity of the Earth also varies in a phenomenon known as length of day variation.
In modern times, Earth's perihelion occurs around January 3, and the aphelion around July 4. However, these dates change over time due to precession and other orbital factors, which follow cyclical patterns known as Milankovitch cycles. The changing Earth-Sun distance results in an increase of about 6.9% in solar energy reaching the Earth at perihelion relative to aphelion. Since the southern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun at about the same time that the Earth reaches the closest approach to the Sun, the southern hemisphere receives slightly more energy from the Sun than does the northern over the course of a year. However, this effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt, and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the southern hemisphere.
- Main article: Moon
|Name||Diameter||Mass||Semi-major axis||Orbital period|
|Moon||3,474.8 km||7.349×1022 kg||384,400 km||27 days, 7 hours, 43.7 minutes|
|2,159.2 mi||8.1×1019 (short) tons||238,700 mi|
The Moon is a relatively large, terrestrial, planet-like satellite, with a diameter about one-quarter of the Earth's. It is the largest moon in the solar system relative to the size of its planet. (Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto.) The natural satellites orbiting other planets are called "moons" after Earth's Moon.
The gravitational attraction between the Earth and Moon causes tides on Earth. The same effect on the Moon has led to its tidal locking: its rotation period is the same as the time it takes to orbit the Earth. As a result, it always presents the same face to the planet. As the Moon orbits Earth, different parts of its face are illuminated by the Sun, leading to the lunar phases; the dark part of the face is separated from the light part by the solar terminator.
Because of their tidal interaction, the Moon recedes from Earth at the rate of approximately 38 mm a year. Over millions of years, these tiny modifications—and the lengthening of Earth's day by about 23 µs a year—add up to significant changes. During the Devonian period, for example, (approximately 410 million years ago) there were 400 days in a year, with each day lasting 21.8 hours.
The Moon may have dramatically affected the development of life by moderating the planet's climate. Paleontological evidence and computer simulations show that Earth's axial tilt is stabilized by tidal interactions with the Moon. Some theorists believe that without this stabilization against the torques applied by the Sun and planets to the Earth's equatorial bulge, the rotational axis might be chaotically unstable, exhibiting chaotic changes over millions of years, as appears to be the case for Mars. If Earth's axis of rotation were to approach the plane of the ecliptic, extremely severe weather could result from the resulting extreme seasonal differences. One pole would be pointed directly toward the Sun during summer and directly away during winter. Planetary scientists who have studied the effect claim that this might kill all large animal and higher plant life. However, this is a controversial subject, and further studies of Mars—which has a similar rotation period and axial tilt as Earth, but not its large Moon or liquid core—may settle the matter.
Viewed from Earth, the Moon is just far enough away to have very nearly the same apparent-sized disk as the Sun. The angular size (or solid angle) of these two bodies match because, although the Sun's diameter is about 400 times as large as the Moon's, it is also 400 times more distant. This allows total and annular eclipses to occur on Earth.
The most widely accepted theory of the Moon's origin, the giant impact theory, states that it formed from the collision of a Mars-size protoplanet called Theia with the early Earth. This hypothesis explains (among other things) the Moon's relative lack of iron and volatile elements, and the fact that its composition is nearly identical to that of the Earth's crust.
A planet that can sustain life is termed habitable, even if life did not originate there. The Earth provides the (currently understood) requisite conditions of liquid water, an environment where complex organic molecules can assemble, and sufficient energy to sustain metabolism. The distance of the Earth from the Sun, as well as its orbital eccentricity, rate of rotation, axial tilt, geological history, sustaining atmosphere and protective magnetic field all contribute to the conditions necessary to originate and sustain life on this planet.
- Main article: Biosphere
The planet's life forms are sometimes said to form a "biosphere". This biosphere is generally believed to have begun evolving about 3.5 billion years ago. Earth is the only place in the universe where life is known to exist. Some scientists believe that Earth-like biospheres might be rare.
The biosphere is divided into a number of biomes, inhabited by broadly similar plants and animals. On land primarily latitude and height above the sea level separates biomes. Terrestrial biomes lying within the Arctic, Antarctic Circle or in high altitudes are relatively barren of plant and animal life, while the greatest latitudinal diversity of species is found at the Equator.
Natural resources and land useEdit
- Main article: Natural resource
The Earth provides resources that are exploitable by humans for useful purposes. Some of these are non-renewable resources, such as mineral fuels, that are difficult to replenish on a short time scale.
Large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from the Earth's crust, consisting of coal, petroleum, natural gas and methane clathrate. These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. Mineral ore bodies have also been formed in Earth's crust through a process of Ore genesis, resulting from actions of erosion and plate tectonics. These bodies form concentrated sources for many metals and other useful elements.
The Earth's biosphere produces many useful biological products for humans, including (but far from limited to) food, wood, pharmaceuticals, oxygen, and the recycling of many organic wastes. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends upon dissolved nutrients washed down from the land. Humans also live on the land by using building materials to construct shelters. In 1993, human use of land is approximately:
|Forests and woodland:||32%|
The estimated amount of irrigated land in 1993 was 2,481,250 km².
Natural and environmental hazardsEdit
Large areas are subject to extreme weather such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, or typhoons that dominate life in those areas. Many places are subject to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, sinkholes, blizzards, floods, droughts, and other calamities and disasters.
Many localized areas are subject to human-made pollution of the air and water, acid rain and toxic substances, loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, species extinction, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion, and introduction of invasive species.
A scientific consensus exists linking human activities to global warming due to industrial carbon dioxide emissions. This is predicted to produce changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, more extreme temperature ranges, significant changes in weather conditions and a global rise in average sea levels.
- Main article: Human geography
Cartography, the study and practice of map making, and vicariously geography, have historically been the disciplines devoted to depicting the Earth. Surveying, the determination of locations and distances, to a lesser extent navigation, the determination of position and direction, have developed alongside cartography and geography, providing and suitably quantifying the requisite information.
Earth has approximately 6,740,000,000 human inhabitants as of November 2008. Projections indicate that the world's human population will reach seven billion in 2013 and 9.2 billion in 2050. Most of the growth is expected to take place in developing nations. Human population density varies widely around the world, but a majority live in Asia. By 2020, 60% of the world's population is expected to be living in urban, rather than rural, areas.
It is estimated that only one eighth of the surface of the Earth is suitable for humans to live on—three-quarters is covered by oceans, and half of the land area is either desert (14%), high mountains (27%), or other less suitable terrain. The northernmost permanent settlement in the world is Alert, on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. (82°28′N) The southernmost is the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, in Antarctica, almost exactly at the South Pole. (90°S)
Independent sovereign nations claim the planet's entire land surface, with the exception of some parts of Antarctica. As of 2007 there are 201 sovereign states, including the 192 United Nations member states. In addition, there are 59 dependent territories, and a number of autonomous areas, territories under dispute and other entities. Historically, Earth has never had a sovereign government with authority over the entire globe, although a number of nation-states have striven for world domination and failed.
The United Nations is a worldwide intergovernmental organization that was created with the goal of intervening in the disputes between nations, thereby avoiding armed conflict. It is not, however, a world government. While the U.N. provides a mechanism for international law and, when the consensus of the membership permits, armed intervention, it serves primarily as a forum for international diplomacy.
In total, about 400 people have been outside the Earth's atmosphere as of 2004, and, of these, twelve have walked on the Moon. Normally the only humans in space are those on the International Space Station. The station's crew of three people is usually replaced every six months.
- Main article: Earth in culture
The name Earth was derived from the Anglo-Saxon word erda, which means ground or soil. It became eorthe in Old English, then erthe in Middle English. The standard astronomical symbol of the Earth consists of a cross circumscribed by a circle.
Earth has often been personified as a deity, in particular a goddess. In many cultures the mother goddess, also called the Mother Earth, is also portrayed as a fertility deity. Creation myths in many religions recall a story involving the creation of the Earth by a supernatural deity or deities. A variety of religious groups, often associated with fundamentalist branches of Protestantism or Islam, assert that their interpretations of these creation myths in sacred texts are literal truth and should be considered alongside or replace conventional scientific accounts of the formation of the Earth and the origin and development of life. Such assertions are opposed by the scientific community and other religious groups. A prominent example is the creation-evolution controversy.
In the past there were varying levels of belief in a flat Earth, but this was displaced by the concept of a Spherical Earth due to observation and circumnavigation. The human perspective regarding the Earth has changed following the advent of spaceflight, and the biosphere is now widely viewed from a globally integrated perspective.
This is reflected in a growing environmental movement that is concerned about humankind's effects on the planet.
- List of Earth-related topics
- List of basic Earth science topics
- List of Earth science topics (alphabetical)
- List of basic geography topics
- List of basic geology topics
- Clairaut's theorem
- ↑ Note that by International Astronomical Union convention, the term "Terra" is used for naming extensive land masses, rather than for the planet Earth. Cf. Blue, Jennifer (2007-07-05). "Descriptor Terms (Feature Types)". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ Other planets in the solar system are either too hot or too cold to support liquid water. However, it is confirmed to have existed on the surface of Mars in the past, and may still appear today. See: Msnbc (2007-03-02). "Rover reveals Mars was once wet enough for life", NASA. Retrieved on 28 August 2007. Staff (2005-11-07). "Simulations Show Liquid Water Could Exist on Mars", University of Arkansas. Retrieved on 8 August 2007.
- ↑ As of 2007, water vapor has been detected in the atmosphere of only one extrasolar planet, and it is a gas giant. See: Tinetti, G. et al (July 2007). "Water vapour in the atmosphere of a transiting extrasolar planet". Nature 448: 169–171. doi:10.1038/nature06002, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v448/n7150/abs/nature06002.html.
- ↑ The number of solar days is one less than the number of sidereal days because the orbital motion of the Earth about the Sun results in one additional revolution of the planet about its axis.
- ↑ This article incorporates text from the article "Petrology" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
- ↑ Locally varies between 5 and 200 km.
- ↑ Locally varies between 5 and 70 km.
- ↑ This is the measurement taken by the vessel Kaikō in March 1995 and is believed to be the most accurate measurement to date. See the Challenger Deep article for more details.
- ↑ The total volume of the Earth's oceans is: 1.4×109 km³. The total surface area of the Earth is 5.1×108 km². So, to first approximation, the average depth would be the ratio of the two, or 2.7 km.
- ↑ Aoki, the ultimate source of these figures, uses the term "seconds of UT1" instead of "seconds of mean solar time".—Aoki, S.; Kinoshita, H.; Guinot, B.; Kaplan, G. H.; McCarthy, D. D.; Seidelmann, P. K. (1982). "The new definition of universal time". Astronomy and Astrophysics 105 (2): 359–361, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982A&A...105..359A. Retrieved on 23 September 2008.
- ↑ For the Earth, the Hill radius is
- ↑ "Earth (PLANET)". Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on 2008-11-14.
- ↑ May, Robert M. (1988). "How many species are there on earth?". Science 241 (4872): 1441–1449. doi:10.1126/science.241.4872.1441. PMID 17790039, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Sci...241.1441M. Retrieved on 14 August 2007.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Dalrymple, G.B. (1991). The Age of the Earth. California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1569-6.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Newman, William L. (2007-07-09). "Age of the Earth". Publications Services, USGS. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Dalrymple, G. Brent (2001). "The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved". Geological Society, London, Special Publications 190: 205–221. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.190.01.14, http://sp.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/190/1/205. Retrieved on 20 September 2007.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Stassen, Chris (2005-09-10). "The Age of the Earth". The TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
- ↑ Harrison, Roy M.; Hester, Ronald E. (2002). Causes and Environmental Implications of Increased UV-B Radiation, Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0854042652.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Carrington, Damian (2000-02-21). "Date set for desert Earth", BBC News. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- ↑ Yoder, Charles F. (1995:8).
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Morbidelli, A.; Chambers, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Petit, J. M.; Robert, F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Cyr, K. E. (2000). "Source regions and time scales for the delivery of water to Earth". Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35 (6): 1309–1320, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000M&PS...35.1309M. Retrieved on 6 March 2007.
- ↑ Yin, Qingzhu; Jacobsen, S. B.; Yamashita, K.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Télouk, P.; Albarède, F. (2002). "A short timescale for terrestrial planet formation from Hf-W chronometry of meteorites". Nature 418 (6901): 949–952. doi:10.1038/nature00995.
- ↑ Canup, R. M.; Asphaug, E. (Fall Meeting 2001). "An impact origin of the Earth-Moon system". Abstract #U51A-02, American Geophysical Union. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
- ↑ R. Canup and E. Asphaug (2001). "Origin of the Moon in a giant impact near the end of the Earth's formation". Nature 412: 708–712. doi:10.1038/35089010, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v412/n6848/abs/412708a0.html.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Ward and Brownlee (2002)
- ↑ Rogers, John James William; Santosh, M. (2004). Continents and Supercontinents, Oxford University Press US. pp. 48. ISBN 0195165896.
- ↑ Murphy, J. B.; Nance, R. D. (1965). "How do supercontinents assemble?". American Scientist 92: 324–33. doi:10.1511/2004.4.324, http://scienceweek.com/2004/sa040730-5.htm. Retrieved on 5 March 2007.
- ↑ Doolittle, W. Ford (February 2000). "Uprooting the tree of life". Scientific American 282 (6): 90–95. doi:10.1038/nature03582.
- ↑ Berkner, L. V.; Marshall, L. C. (1965). "On the Origin and Rise of Oxygen Concentration in the Earth's Atmosphere". Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 22 (3): 225–261. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1965)022<0225:OTOARO>2.0.CO;2, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965JAtS...22..225B. Retrieved on 5 March 2007.
- ↑ Burton, Kathleen (2002-11-29). "Astrobiologists Find Evidence of Early Life on Land". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
- ↑ Kirschvink, J. L. (1992). Schopf, J.W.; Klein, C. & Des Maris, D.. ed.. Late Proterozoic low-latitude global glaciation: the Snowball Earth. The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study, Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 0521366151.
- ↑ Raup, D. M.; Sepkoski, J. J. (1982). "Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record". Science 215 (4539): 1501–1503. doi:10.1126/science.215.4539.1501, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982Sci...215.1501R. Retrieved on 5 March 2007.
- ↑ Gould, Stephan J. (October 1994). "The Evolution of Life on Earth". Scientific American, http://brembs.net/gould.html. Retrieved on 5 March 2007.
- ↑ Wilkinson, B. H.; McElroy, B. J. (2007). "The impact of humans on continental erosion and sedimentation". Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 119 (1–2): 140–156. doi:10.1130/B25899.1, http://bulletin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/119/1-2/140. Retrieved on 22 April 2007.
- ↑ Staff. "Paleoclimatology - The Study of Ancient Climates". Page Paleontology Science Center. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 Sackmann, I.-J.; Boothroyd, A. I.; Kraemer, K. E. (1993). "Our Sun. III. Present and Future" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal 418: 457–468. doi:10.1086/173407. Bibcode: 1993ApJ...418..457S, http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1993ApJ...418..457S&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf. Retrieved on 8 July 2008.
- ↑ Kasting, J.F. (1988). "Runaway and Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres and the Evolution of Earth and Venus". Icarus 74: 472–494. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90116-9, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Icar...74..472K. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- ↑ Guillemot, H.; Greffoz, V. (March 2002). "Ce que sera la fin du monde" (in French). Science et Vie N° 1014.
- ↑ Britt, Robert (2000-02-25). "Freeze, Fry or Dry: How Long Has the Earth Got?".
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 Schröder, K.-P.; Smith, Robert Connon (2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386: 155. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. arΧiv:0801.4031.
See also Palmer, Jason (2008-02-22). "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death", NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on 24 March 2008.
- ↑ Stern, David P. (2001-11-25). "Planetary Magnetism". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
- ↑ Tackley, Paul J. (2000-06-16). "Mantle Convection and Plate Tectonics: Toward an Integrated Physical and Chemical Theory". Science 288 (5473): 2002–2007. doi:10.1126/science.288.5473.2002. PMID 10856206.
- ↑ Milbert, D. G.; Smith, D. A.. "Converting GPS Height into NAVD88 Elevation with the GEOID96 Geoid Height Model". National Geodetic Survey, NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
- ↑ Mohr, P.J.; Taylor, B.N. (October 2000). "Unit of length (meter)". NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST Physics Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Sandwell, D. T.; Smith, W. H. F. (2006-07-07). "Exploring the Ocean Basins with Satellite Altimeter Data". NOAA/NGDC. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
- ↑ Staff (November 2001). "WPA Tournament Table & Equipment Specifications". World Pool-Billiards Association. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
- ↑ Senne, Joseph H. (2000). "Did Edmund Hillary Climb the Wrong Mountain". Professional Surveyor 20 (5), http://www.profsurv.com/archive.php?issue=42&article=589. Retrieved on 4 February 2007.
- ↑ Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E. (1980). "Chemical composition of Earth, Venus, and Mercury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 71 (12): 6973–6977. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.6973. PMID 16592930, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=350422. Retrieved on 4 February 2007.
- ↑ Tanimoto, Toshiro (1995). Thomas J. Ahrens. ed.. Crustal Structure of the Earth. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 0-87590-851-9, http://www.agu.org/reference/gephys/15_tanimoto.pdf. Retrieved on 3 February 2007.
- ↑ Kerr, Richard A. (2005-09-26). "Earth's Inner Core Is Running a Tad Faster Than the Rest of the Planet". Science 309 (5739): 1313. doi:10.1126/science.309.5739.1313a.
- ↑ Jordan, T. H. (1979). "Structural Geology of the Earth's Interior". Proceedings National Academy of Science 76 (9): 4192–4200. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.9.4192. PMID 16592703, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=411539. Retrieved on 24 March 2007.
- ↑ Robertson, Eugene C. (2001-07-26). "The Interior of the Earth". USGS. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
- ↑ Sanders, Robert (2003-12-10). "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core", UC Berkeley News. Retrieved on 28 February 2007.
- ↑ Alfè, D.; Gillan, M. J.; Vocadlo, L.; Brodholt, J; Price, G. D. (2002). "The ab initio simulation of the Earth's core" (PDF). Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London 360 (1795): 1227–1244, http://chianti.geol.ucl.ac.uk/~dario/pubblicazioni/PTRSA2002.pdf. Retrieved on 28 February 2007.
- ↑ Richards, M. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Courtillot, V. E. (1989). "Flood Basalts and Hot-Spot Tracks: Plume Heads and Tails". Science 246 (4926): 103–107. doi:10.1126/science.246.4926.103. PMID 17837768, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Sci...246..103R. Retrieved on 21 April 2007.
- ↑ Seligman, Courtney (2008). "The Structure of the Terrestrial Planets". Online Astronomy eText Table of Contents. cseligman.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
- ↑ Kious, W. J.; Tilling, R. I. (1999-05-05). "Understanding plate motions". USGS. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
- ↑ Brown, W. K.; Wohletz, K. H. (2005). "SFT and the Earth's Tectonic Plates". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-03-02.
- ↑ Meschede, M.; Udo Barckhausen, U. (2000-11-20). "Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Center". Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Texas A&M University. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
- ↑ Staff. "GPS Time Series". NASA JPL. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 Pidwirny, Michael (2006). "Fundamentals of Physical Geography". PhysicalGeography.net. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
- ↑ Kring, David A.. "Terrestrial Impact Cratering and Its Environmental Effects". Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
- ↑ Duennebier, Fred (1999-08-12). "Pacific Plate Motion". University of Hawaii. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- ↑ Mueller, R.D.; Roest, W.R.; Royer, J.-Y.; Gahagan, L.M.; Sclater, J.G. (2007-03-07). "Age of the Ocean Floor Poster". NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- ↑ Staff. "Layers of the Earth". Volcano World. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
- ↑ Jessey, David. "Weathering and Sedimentary Rocks". Cal Poly Pomona. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
- ↑ Staff. "Minerals". Museum of Natural History, Oregon. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
- ↑ Cox, Ronadh (2003). "Carbonate sediments". Williams College. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ FAO Staff (1995). FAO Production Yearbook 1994 (Volume 48 ed.). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9250038445.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 Sverdrup, H. U.; Fleming, Richard H. (1942-01-01). The oceans, their physics, chemistry, and general biology, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Archives, http://repositories.cdlib.org/sio/arch/oceans/. Retrieved on 13 June 2008.
- ↑ "7,000 m Class Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO 7000". Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). Retrieved on 2008-06-07.
- ↑ Igor A. Shiklomanov et al (1999). "World Water Resources and their use Beginning of the 21st century" Prepared in the Framework of IHP UNESCO". State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Mullen, Leslie (2002-06-11). "Salt of the Early Earth". NASA Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- ↑ Morris, Ron M.. "Oceanic Processes". NASA Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- ↑ Scott, Michon (2006-04-24). "Earth's Big heat Bucket". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- ↑ Sample, Sharron (2005-06-21). "Sea Surface Temperature". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 67.2 Williams, David R. (2004-09-01). "Earth Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- ↑ Geerts, B.; Linacre, E. (November 1997). "The height of the tropopause". Resources in Atmospheric Sciences. University of Wyoming. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 Staff (2003-10-08). "Earth's Atmosphere". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 Moran, Joseph M. (2005). "Weather". World Book Online Reference Center. NASA/World Book, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- ↑ 71.0 71.1 Berger, Wolfgang H. (2002). "The Earth's Climate System". University of California, San Diego. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
- ↑ Rahmstorf, Stefan (2003). "The Thermohaline Ocean Circulation". Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
- ↑ Various (1997-07-21). "The Hydrologic Cycle". University of Illinois. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
- ↑ Staff. "Climate Zones". UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
- ↑ Staff (2004). "Stratosphere and Weather; Discovery of the Stratosphere". Science Week. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
- ↑ de Córdoba, S. Sanz Fernández (2004-06-21). "100 km. Altitude Boundary for Astronautics". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
- ↑ Liu, S. C.; Donahue, T. M. (1974). "The Aeronomy of Hydrogen in the Atmosphere of the Earth". Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 31 (4): 1118–1136. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<1118:TAOHIT>2.0.CO;2, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1974JAtS...31.1118L. Retrieved on 2 March 2007.
- ↑ David C. Catling, Kevin J. Zahnle, Christopher P. McKay. "Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth". Science 293 (5531): 839–843, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/293/5531/839.
- ↑ Abedon, Stephen T. (1997-03-31). "History of Earth". Ohio State University. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
- ↑ Hunten, D. M.; Donahue, T. M. (1976). "Hydrogen loss from the terrestrial planets". Annual review of earth and planetary sciences 4: 265–292, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1976AREPS...4..265H. Retrieved on 7 November 2008.
- ↑ Fitzpatrick, Richard (2006-02-16). "MHD dynamo theory". NASA WMAP. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
- ↑ Campbell, Wallace Hall (2003). Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57. ISBN 0521822068.
- ↑ Stern, David P. (2005-07-08). "Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- ↑ "Leap seconds". Time Service Department, USNO. Retrieved on 2008-09-23.
- ↑ 85.0 85.1 Staff (2007-08-07). "Useful Constants". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). Retrieved on 2008-09-23.
- ↑ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (1992). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. pp. 48. ISBN 0-935702-68-7.
- ↑ Staff. "IERS Excess of the duration of the day to 86400s … since 1623". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). Retrieved on 2008-09-23.—Graph at end.
- ↑ Staff. "IERS Variations in the duration of the day 1962–2005". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). Retrieved on 2008-09-23.
- ↑ Zeilik, M.; Gregory, S. A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed. ed.), Saunders College Publishing. pp. 56. ISBN 0030062284.
- ↑ 90.0 90.1 Williams, David R. (2006-02-10). "Planetary Fact Sheets". NASA. Retrieved on 2008-09-28.—See the apparent diameters on the Sun and Moon pages.
- ↑ Williams, David R. (2004-09-01). "Moon Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Vázquez, M.; Montañés Rodríguez, P.; Palle, E. (2006). "The Earth as an Object of Astrophysical Interest in the Search for Extrasolar Planets" (PDF). Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Astrophysicist team (2005-12-01). "Earth's location in the Milky Way". NASA. Retrieved on 2008-06-11.
- ↑ Bromberg, Irv (2008-05-01). "The Lengths of the Seasons (on Earth)". University of Toronto. Retrieved on 2008-11-08.
- ↑ Fisher, Rick (1996-02-05). "Earth Rotation and Equatorial Coordinates". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Aphelion is 103.4% of the distance to perihelion. Due to the inverse square law, the radiation at perihelion is about 106.9% the energy at aphelion.
- ↑ Williams, Jack (2005-12-20). "Earth's tilt creates seasons". USAToday. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- ↑ Espenak, F.; Meeus, J. (2007-02-07). "Secular acceleration of the Moon". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
- ↑ Poropudas, Hannu K. J. (1991-12-16). "Using Coral as a Clock". Skeptic Tank. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
- ↑ Laskar, J.; Robutel, P.; Joutel, F.; Gastineau, M.; Correia, A.C.M.; Levrard, B. (2004). "A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth". Astronomy and Astrophysics 428: 261–285. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041335, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004A&A...428..261L. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- ↑ Murray, N.; Holman, M. (2001). "The role of chaotic resonances in the solar system". Nature 410 (6830): 773–779. doi:10.1038/35071000, http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0111602v1. Retrieved on 5 August 2008.
- ↑ Williams, D.M.; J.F. Kasting (1996). "Habitable planets with high obliquities". Lunar and Planetary Science 27: 1437–1438, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27.1437W. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- ↑ R. Canup and E. Asphaug (2001). "Origin of the Moon in a giant impact near the end of the Earth's formation". Nature 412: 708–712. doi:10.1038/35089010.
- ↑ Whitehouse, David (2002-10-21). "Earth's little brother found", BBC News. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- ↑ Staff (September 2003). "Astrobiology Roadmap". NASA, Lockheed Martin. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
- ↑ Dole, Stephen H. (1970). Habitable Planets for Man (2nd edition ed.), American Elsevier Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-444-00092-5, http://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R414/. Retrieved on 11 March 2007.
- ↑ Ward, P. D.; Brownlee, D. (2000-01-14). Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe (1st edition ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0387987010.
- ↑ Hillebrand, Helmut (2004). "On the Generality of the Latitudinal Gradient". American Naturalist 163 (2): 192–211. doi:10.1086/381004.
- ↑ Staff (2006-11-24). "Mineral Genesis: How do minerals form?". Non-vertebrate Paleontology Laboratory, Texas Memorial Museum. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
- ↑ Rona, Peter A. (2003). "Resources of the Sea Floor". Science 299 (5607): 673–674. doi:10.1126/science.1080679, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/299/5607/673?ijkey=AHVbRrqUsmdHY&keytype=ref&siteid=sci. Retrieved on 4 February 2007.
- ↑ Staff (2007-02-02). "Evidence is now ‘unequivocal’ that humans are causing global warming – UN report". United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
- ↑ United States Census Bureau (2008-01-07). "World POP Clock Projection". United States Census Bureau International Database. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
- ↑ Staff. "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision". United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
- ↑ Staff (2007). "Human Population: Fundamentals of Growth: Growth". Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
- ↑ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 4: 439–473, http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/4/439/2007/hessd-4-439-2007.html. Retrieved on 31 March 2007.
- ↑ Staff. "Themes & Issues". Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
- ↑ Staff (2006-08-15). "Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert". Information Management Group. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
- ↑ Staff. "International Law". United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
- ↑ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House. July 2005. ISBN 0-375-42599-3.
- ↑ Liungman, Carl G. (2004). "Group 29: Multi-axes symmetric, both soft and straight-lined, closed signs with crossing lines". Symbols -- Encyclopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms. New York: Ionfox AB. pp. 281–282. ISBN 91-972705-0-4.
- ↑ Dutch, S.I. (2002). "Religion as belief versus religion as fact" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience Education 50 (2): 137–144, http://nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Dutch_v50n2p137.pdf. Retrieved on 28 April 2008.
- ↑ Taner Edis (2003). A World Designed by God: Science and Creationism in Contemporary Islam, Amherst: Prometheus. ISBN 1-59102-064-6, http://www2.truman.edu/~edis/writings/articles/CFI-2001.pdf. Retrieved on 28 April 2008.
- ↑ Ross, M.R. (2005). "Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience Education 53 (3): 319, http://www.nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Ross_v53n3p319.pdf. Retrieved on 28 April 2008.
- ↑ Pennock, R. T. (2003). "Creationism and intelligent design". Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 4: 143–63. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110400. PMID 14527300.
- ↑ Science, Evolution, and Creationism National Academy Press, Washington, DC 2005
- ↑ Colburn, A.; Henriques, L. (2006). "Clergy views on evolution, creationism, science, and religion". Journal of Research in Science Teaching 43 (4): 419–442. doi:10.1002/tea.20109.
- ↑ Frye, Roland Mushat (1983). Is God a Creationist? The Religious Case Against Creation-Science, Scribner's. ISBN 0-68417-993-8.
- ↑ Gould, S. J. (1997). "Nonoverlapping magisteria" (PDF). Natural History 106 (2): 16–22, http://www.jbburnett.com/resources/gould_nonoverlapping.pdf. Retrieved on 28 April 2008.
- ↑ Russell, Jeffrey B.. "The Myth of the Flat Earth". American Scientific Affiliation. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.; but see also Cosmas Indicopleustes
- ↑ Jacobs, James Q. (1998-02-01). "Archaeogeodesy, a Key to Prehistory". Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
- ↑ Fuller, R. Buckminster (1963). Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (First edition ed.). New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.. ISBN 0-525-47433-1, http://www.futurehi.net/docs/OperatingManual.html. Retrieved on 21 April 2007.
- ↑ Lovelock, James E. (1979). Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (First edition ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286030-5.
- ↑ For example: McMichael, Anthony J. (1993). Planetary Overload: Global Environmental Change and the Health of the Human Species, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521457599.
- Comins, Neil F. (2001). Discovering the Essential Universe (Second Edition ed.), W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-5804-0, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003deu..book.....C. Retrieved on 17 March 2007.
- Kirk Munsell:"Solar System Exploration: Earth". NASA (2006-10-19). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- Ward, Peter D.; Donald Brownlee (2002). The Life and Death of Planet Earth: How the New Science of Astrobiology Charts the Ultimate Fate of Our World, Times Books, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-6781-7.
- Williams, David R. (2004-09-01). "Earth Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
- Yoder, Charles F. (1995). T. J. Ahrens. ed.. Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Washington: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 0875908519, http://www.agu.org/reference/gephys.html. Retrieved on 17 March 2007.
Learning resources from Wikiversity
- USGS Geomagnetism Program
- NASA Earth Observatory
- Earth Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
- Climate changes cause Earth's shape to change - NASA