Fandom

Gravity Wiki

Density of satellites

771pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Big sattellites

Name
Diameter
(km,sq)[note 1]
Mass
(×1016 kg,sq)
Semi-major axis
(km,sq)[1]
Orbital period
(d,sq)[1][note 2]
Diameter
(km,biq)
Mass
(×1016 kg,biq)
Semi-major axis
(km,biq)
Orbital period
(d,biq)
Earth 1.000 12,756 384,000 27.3 12,756 3,663,360 27.3
Io 0.4022 3,660.0×3,637.4
×3,630.6
8,900,000 421,700 +1.769 137 786 1,472.05 169,607.7
Europa 0.4022 3,121.6 4,800,000 671,034 +3.551 181 041 1,255.5 269,889.9
Ganymede 0.4022 5,262.4 15,000,000 1,070,412 +7.154 552 96 2,116.54 430,519.7
Callisto 0.4022 4,820.6 11,000,000 1,882,709 +16.689 018 4 1.938.85 757,225.6
Rhea 0.3361 1529 (1535×1525×1526) 2306.518 ± 0.353 527 108 +4.518 212 513.9 177,161.0
Titan 0.3361 5151 134520 ± 20 1 221 930 +15.945 42 1,731.251 410,690.7


EarthEdit

Main article: Structure of the Earth

The interior of the Earth, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is divided into layers by their chemical or rheological properties. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. The crust is separated from the mantle by the Mohorovičić discontinuity, and the thickness of the crust varies: averaging 6 km under the oceans and 30–50 km on the continents.[2] The inner core may rotate at a slightly higher angular velocity than the remainder of the planet, advancing by 0.1–0.5° per year.[3]

Geologic layers of the Earth[4]
Earth-crust-cutaway-english

Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. Not to scale.
Depth[5]
km
Component Layer Density
g/cm³
0–60 Lithosphere[note 3]
0–35 ... Crust[note 4] 2.2–2.9
35–60 ... Upper mantle 3.4–4.4
35–2890 Mantle 3.4–5.6
100–700 ... Asthenosphere
2890–5100 Outer core 9.9–12.2
5100–6378 Inner core 12.8–13.1

The internal heat of the planet is probably produced by the radioactive decay of potassium-40, uranium-238 and thorium-232 isotopes. All three have half-life decay periods of more than a billion years.[6] At the center of the planet, the temperature may be up to 7,000 K and the pressure could reach 360 GPa.[7] A portion of the core's thermal energy is transported toward the crust by Mantle plumes; a form of convection consisting of upwellings of higher-temperature rock. These plumes can produce hotspots and flood basalts.[8]

Example for inverse biquadrate schemeEdit

name depth density
crust ~35km 2.6
upper mantle ~60km 111.7
lower mantle ~2890km 222.5
outer core ~5100km 260.9
inner core ~6378km 775.4


see alsoEdit

referencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service". "Note: some semi-major axis were computed using the µ value, while the eccentricities were taken using the inclination to the local Laplace plane" 
  2. Tanimoto, Toshiro (1995). Thomas J. Ahrens. ed.. Crustal Structure of the Earth. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 0-87590-851-9, http://www.agu.org/reference/gephys/15_tanimoto.pdf. Retrieved on 3 February 2007. 
  3. Kerr, Richard A. (2005-09-26). "Earth's Inner Core Is Running a Tad Faster Than the Rest of the Planet". Science 309 (5739): 1313. doi:10.1126/science.309.5739.1313a. 
  4. Jordan, T. H. (1979). "Structural Geology of the Earth's Interior". Proceedings National Academy of Science 76 (9): 4192–4200. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.9.4192. PMID 16592703, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=411539. Retrieved on 24 March 2007. 
  5. Robertson, Eugene C. (2001-07-26). "The Interior of the Earth". USGS. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  6. Sanders, Robert (2003-12-10). "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core", UC Berkeley News. Retrieved on 28 February 2007. 
  7. Alfè, D.; Gillan, M. J.; Vocadlo, L.; Brodholt, J; Price, G. D. (2002). "The ab initio simulation of the Earth's core" (PDF). Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London 360 (1795): 1227–1244, http://chianti.geol.ucl.ac.uk/~dario/pubblicazioni/PTRSA2002.pdf. Retrieved on 28 February 2007. 
  8. Richards, M. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Courtillot, V. E. (1989). "Flood Basalts and Hot-Spot Tracks: Plume Heads and Tails". Science 246 (4926): 103–107. doi:10.1126/science.246.4926.103. PMID 17837768, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Sci...246..103R. Retrieved on 21 April 2007. 
  1. Diameters with multiple entries such as "60×40×34" reflect that the body is not a perfect spheroid and that each of its dimensions have been measured well enough.
  2. Periods with negative values are retrograde.
  3. Locally varies between 5 and 200 km.
  4. Locally varies between 5 and 70 km.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.