Simple photosynthesis overview

Photosynthesis changes the energy in sunlight into chemical energy and splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar

Conversion of carbon dioxide to water need Hydrogen.

CO2 + 4H2 -> CH4+2H2O


2N2 + 3H2 -> 2NH3

Exposure (Proton)Edit

The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) determined that more then 95% of the particles in solar winds are electrons and protons of approximate equal numbers.".[1][2]

"Because the Solar Wind Spectrometer made continuous measurements, it was possible to measure how the Earth's magnetic field affects arriving solar wind particles. For about two-thirds of each orbit, the Moon is outside of the Earth's magnetic field. At these times, a typical proton density was 10 to 20 per cubic centimeter, with most protons having velocities between 400 and 650 kilometers per second. For about five days of each month, the Moon is inside the Earth's geomagnetic tail, and typically no solar wind particles were detectable. For the remainder of each lunar orbit, the Moon is in a transitional region known as the magnetosheath, where the Earth's magnetic field affects the solar wind but does not completely exclude it. In this region, the particle flux is reduced, with typical proton velocities of 250 to 450 kilometers per second. During the lunar night, the spectrometer was shielded from the solar wind by the Moon and no solar wind particles were measured."[1]

Research has also been or is being performed on the dose-rate effects of protons, as typically found in space travel, on human health.[2][3] More specifically, there are hopes to identify what specific chromosomes are damaged, and to define the damage, during cancer development from proton exposure.[2] Another study looks into determining "the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze."[3] One study even looks into "interplanetary protons" and the effects of charging spacecrafts.[4] There are many more studies which pertain to space travel, its galactic cosmic rays, its possible health effects, and solar proton event exposure.

See alsoEdit


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Apollo 11 Mission" Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2009. Accessed 12 June 2009.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Space Travel and Cancer Linked? Stony Brook Researcher Secures NASA Grant to Study Effects of Space Radiation" December 12, 2007. Brookhaven National Laboratory News. Stony Brook, N.Y., Accessed 12 June 2009
  3. 3.0 3.1 Shukitt-Hale, B., Szprengiel, A., Pluhar, J., Rabin, B. M. & Joseph, J. A. "The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior". Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR. Article summary published by Accessed 12 June 2009.
  4. N. W. Green and A. R. Frederickson. "A Study of Spacecraft Charging due to Exposure to Interplanetary Protons". Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Accessed 12 June 2009.

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