Asteroids, sometimes called minor planets or planetoids, are bodies—primarily of the inner Solar System—that are smaller than planets but larger than meteoroids, but exclude comets. The distinction between asteroids and comets is made on visual appearance when discovered: Comets show a perceptible coma while asteroids do not.
Traditionally, small bodies orbiting the Sun were classified as asteroids, comets or meteoroids, with anything smaller than ten metres across being called a meteoroid. The term "asteroid" is somewhat ill-defined. It never had a formal definition, with the broader term minor planet being preferred by the International Astronomical Union until 2006, when the term "small Solar System body" was introduced to cover both minor planets and comets. Other languages prefer "planetoid" (Greek for "planet-like"), and this term is occasionally used in English for the larger asteroids. The word "planetesimal" has a similar meaning, but refers specifically to the small building blocks of the planets that existed at the time the Solar System was forming. The term "planetule" was coined by the geologist William Daniel Conybeare to describe minor planets, but is not in common use.
When discovered, asteroids were seen as a class of objects distinct from comets, and there was no unified term for the two until "small Solar System body" was coined in 2006. The main difference between an asteroid and a comet is that a comet shows a coma due to sublimation of near surface ices by solar radiation. A few objects have ended up being dual-listed because they were first classified as minor planets but later showed evidence of cometary activity. Conversely, some (perhaps all) comets are eventually depleted of their surface volatile ices and become asteroids. A further distinction is that comets typically have more eccentric orbits than most asteroids; most "asteroids" with notably eccentric orbits are probably dormant comets.
For almost two centuries, from the discovery of the first asteroid, 1 Ceres, in 1801 until the discovery of the first centaur, 2060 Chiron, in 1977, all known asteroids spent most of their time at or within the orbit of Jupiter, though a few such as 944 Hidalgo ventured far beyond Jupiter for part of their orbit. When astronomers started finding additional small bodies that permanently resided further out than Jupiter, now called centaurs, they numbered them among the traditional asteroids, though there was debate over whether they should be classified as asteroids or as a new type of object. Then, when the first trans-Neptunian object, 1992 QB1, was discovered in 1992, and especially when large numbers of similar objects started turning up, new terms were invented to sidestep the issue: Kuiper Belt object (KBO), trans-Neptunian object (TNO), scattered-disc object (SDO), and so on. These inhabit the cold outer reaches of the Solar System where ices remain solid and comet-like bodies are not expected to exhibit much cometary activity; if centaurs or TNOs were to venture close to the Sun, their volatile ices would sublimate, and traditional approaches would classify them as comets rather than asteroids.
The innermost of these are the Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), called "objects" partly to avoid the need to classify them as asteroids or comets. KBOs are believed to be predominantly comet-like in composition, though some may be more akin to asteroids. Furthermore, most do not have the highly eccentric orbits associated with comets, and the ones so far discovered are very much larger than traditional comet nuclei. (The much more distant Oort cloud is hypothesized to be the main reservoir of dormant comets.) Other recent observations, such as the analysis of the cometary dust collected by the Stardust probe, are increasingly blurring the distinction between comets and asteroids, suggesting "a continuum between asteroids and comets" rather than a sharp dividing line.
The minor planets beyond Jupiter's orbit are rarely directly referred to as "asteroids", but all are commonly lumped together under the term "asteroid" in popular presentations. For instance, a joint NASA-JPL public-outreach website states,
We include Trojans (bodies captured in Jupiter's 4th and 5th Lagrange points), Centaurs (bodies in orbit between Jupiter and Neptune), and trans-Neptunian objects (orbiting beyond Neptune) in our definition of "asteroid" as used on this site, even though they may more correctly be called "minor planets" instead of asteroids.
It is, however, becoming increasingly common for the term "asteroid" to be restricted to minor planets of the inner Solar System, and therefore this article will restrict itself for the most part to the classical asteroids: objects of the main asteroid belt, Jupiter trojans, and near-Earth objects.
When the IAU introduced the class small solar system bodies in 2006 to include most objects previously classified as minor planets and comets, they created the class of dwarf planets for the largest minor planets—those which have sufficient mass to have become ellipsoidal under their own gravity. According to the IAU, "the term 'minor planet' may still be used, but generally the term 'small solar system body' will be preferred." Currently only the largest object in the asteroid belt, Ceres, at about 950 km across, has been placed in the dwarf planet category, although there are several large asteroids (Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea) that may be classified as dwarf planets when their shapes are better known.
Asteroids within the Asteroid Belt are presumed to be the remnants of matter that did not clump during the formation of the solar system. Even if the materials did collide, the gravity from Jupiter pulled them apart from each other. Composed of rock, dust, and metal, the early asteroids were formed when the heavy metal within them sunk to the center of the rock, forming a metal core. Over time, the lighter rocks formed layers around the core. The rock would then cool steadily, eventually becoming a solid.
However, few asteroids still remain unaffected over time. The largest of the early asteroids most likely melted, and most asteroids have been vastly changed by collisions with other objects.
Objects in the main asteroid belt vary greatly in size, from a diameter of 975 kilometres for the dwarf planet Ceres and over 500 kilometres for the asteroids 2 Pallas and 4 Vesta down to rocks just tens of metres across.[note 1] A few of the largest are roughly spherical and are very much like miniature planets. The vast majority, however, are much smaller and are irregularly shaped.
The physical composition of asteroids is varied and in most cases poorly understood. Ceres appears to be composed of a rocky core covered by an icy mantle, whereas Vesta is thought to have a nickel-iron core, olivine mantle, and basaltic crust, and 10 Hygiea appears to have a primitive composition of undifferentiated carbonaceous chondrite. Many, perhaps most, of smaller asteroids are piles of rubble held together loosely by gravity. Some have moons or are co-orbiting pairs of binary asteroids. All three conditions, as well as scattered asteroid families, may be the result of collisions which disrupted a parent asteroid.
Only one asteroid, 4 Vesta, is normally visible to the naked eye, and this only in very dark skies when it is favorably positioned.
Distribution within the Solar System Edit
The vast majority of known asteroids orbit within the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, generally in relatively low-eccentricity (i.e., not very elongated) orbits. This belt is currently estimated to contain between 1.1 and 1.9 million asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, and millions of smaller ones. It is thought that these asteroids are remnants of the protoplanetary disk, and in this region the accretion of planetesimals into planets during the formative period of the solar system was prevented by large gravitational perturbations by Jupiter. Although fewer Trojan asteroids sharing Jupiter's orbit are currently known, it is thought that there are as many as there are asteroids in the main belt.
The dwarf planet Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, with a diameter of over 900 km. The next largest are the asteroids 2 Pallas and 4 Vesta, both with diameters of over 500 km. Normally Vesta is the only main belt asteroid that can, on occasion, become visible to the naked eye. However, on some very rare occasions, a near-Earth asteroid may briefly become visible without technical aid; see 99942 Apophis.
The mass of all the objects of the Main asteroid belt, lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, is estimated to be about 3.0-3.6×1021 kg, or about 4 percent of the mass of the Moon. Of this, Ceres comprises 0.95×1021 kg, some 32 percent of the total. Adding in the next three most massive asteroids, 4 Vesta (9%), 2 Pallas (7%), and 10 Hygiea (3%), brings this figure up to 51%; while the three after that, 511 Davida (1.2%), 704 Interamnia (1.0%), and 52 Europa (0.9%), only add another 3% to the total mass. The number of asteroids then increases rapidly as their individual masses decrease.
Various classes of asteroid have been discovered outside the main asteroid belt. Near-Earth asteroids have orbits in the vicinity of Earth's orbit. Trojan asteroids are gravitationally locked into synchronisation with a Jupiter, either leading or trailing the planet in its orbit. A couple trojans have been found orbiting with Mars.[note 2] A group of asteroids called Vulcanoids are hypothesised by some to lie very close to the Sun, within the orbit of Mercury, but none has so far been found.
Asteroids are commonly classified according to two criteria: the characteristics of their orbits, and features of their reflectance spectrum.
Orbit groups and families Edit
- Main article: Asteroid group
Many asteroids have been placed in groups and families based on their orbital characteristics. Apart from the broadest divisions, it is customary to name a group of asteroids after the first member of that group to be discovered. Groups are relatively loose dynamical associations, whereas families are much tighter and result from the catastrophic break-up of a large parent asteroid sometime in the past. Families have only been recognized within the main asteroid belt. They were first recognised by Kiyotsugu Hirayama in 1918 and are often called Hirayama families in his honor.
About 30% to 35% of the bodies in the main belt belong to dynamical families each thought to have a common origin in a past collision between asteroids. A family has also been associated with the plutoid dwarf planet Haumea.
Quasi-satellites and horseshoe objectsEdit
Some asteroids have unusual horseshoe orbits that are co-orbital with the Earth or some other planet. Examples are 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29. The first instance of this type of orbital arrangement was discovered between Saturn's moons Epimetheus and Janus.
Sometimes these horseshoe objects temporarily become quasi-satellites for a few decades or a few hundred years, before returning to their prior status. Both Earth and Venus are known to have quasi-satellites.
Spectral classification Edit
- Main article: Asteroid spectral types
In 1975, an asteroid taxonomic system based on colour, albedo, and spectral shape was developed by Clark R. Chapman, David Morrison, and Ben Zellner. These properties are thought to correspond to the composition of the asteroid's surface material. The original classification system had three categories: C-types for dark carbonaceous objects (75% of known asteroids), S-types for stony (silicaceous) objects (17% of known asteroids) and U for those that did not fit into either C or S. This classification has since been expanded to include a number of other asteroid types. The number of types continues to grow as more asteroids are studied.
The two most widely used taxonomies currently used are the Tholen classification and SMASS classification. The former was proposed in 1984 by David J. Tholen, and was based on data collected from an eight-color asteroid survey performed in the 1980s. This resulted in 14 asteroid categories. In 2002, the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey resulted in a modified version of the Tholen taxonomy with 24 different types. Both systems have three broad categories of C, S, and X asteroids, where X consists of mostly metallic asteroids, such as the M-type. There are also a number of smaller classes.
Note that the proportion of known asteroids falling into the various spectral types does not necessarily reflect the proportion of all asteroids that are of that type; some types are easier to detect than others, biasing the totals.
Problems with spectral classification Edit
Originally, spectral designations were based on inferences of an asteroid's composition. However, the correspondence between spectral class and composition is not always very good, and there are a variety of classifications in use. This has led to significant confusion. While asteroids of different spectral classifications are likely to be composed of different materials, there are no assurances that asteroids within the same taxonomic class are composed of similar materials.
At present, the spectral classification based on several coarse resolution spectroscopic surveys in the 1990s is still the standard. Scientists have been unable to agree on a better taxonomic system
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name, largely due to the difficulty of obtaining detailed measurements consistently for a large sample of asteroids (e.g. finer resolution spectra, or non-spectral data such as densities would be very useful).
The first named minor planet, 1 Ceres, was discovered in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi, and was originally considered a new planet.[note 3] This was followed by the discovery of other similar bodies, which with the equipment of the time appeared to be points of light, like stars, showing little or no planetary disc (though readily distinguishable from stars due to their apparent motions). This prompted the astronomer Sir William Herschel to propose the term "asteroid", from Greek αστεροειδής, asteroeidēs = star-like, star-shaped, from ancient Greek Aστήρ, astēr = star. In the early second half of the nineteenth century, the terms "asteroid" and "planet" (not always qualified as "minor") were still used interchangeably; for example, the Annual of Scientific Discovery for 1871, page 316, reads "Professor J. Watson has been awarded by the Paris Academy of Sciences, the astronomical prize, Lalande foundation, for the discovery of 8 new asteroids in one year. The planet Lydia (No. 110), discovered by M. Borelly at the Marseilles Observatory [...] M. Borelly had previously discovered 2 planets bearing the numbers 91 and 99 in the system of asteroids revolving between Mars and Jupiter" (emphasis added).
Historical methods Edit
Asteroid discovery methods have dramatically improved over the past two centuries.
In the last years of the 18th century, Baron Franz Xaver von Zach organized a group of 24 astronomers to search the sky for the missing planet predicted at about 2.8 AU from the Sun by the Titius-Bode law, partly as a consequence of the discovery, by Sir William Herschel in 1781, of the planet Uranus at the distance predicted by the law. This task required that hand-drawn sky charts be prepared for all stars in the zodiacal band down to an agreed-upon limit of faintness. On subsequent nights, the sky would be charted again and any moving object would, hopefully, be spotted. The expected motion of the missing planet was about 30 seconds of arc per hour, readily discernible by observers.
Ironically, the first asteroid, 1 Ceres, was not discovered by a member of the group, but rather by accident in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi, director of the observatory of Palermo in Sicily. He discovered a new star-like object in Taurus and followed the displacement of this object during several nights. His colleague, Carl Friedrich Gauss, used these observations to determine the exact distance from this unknown object to the Earth. Gauss' calculations placed the object between the planets Mars and Jupiter. Piazzi named it after Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture.
Three other asteroids (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, and 4 Vesta) were discovered over the next few years, with Vesta found in 1807. After eight more years of fruitless searches, most astronomers assumed that there were no more and abandoned any further searches.
However, Karl Ludwig Hencke persisted, and began searching for more asteroids in 1830. Fifteen years later, he found 5 Astraea, the first new asteroid in 38 years. He also found 6 Hebe less than two years later. After this, other astronomers joined in the search and at least one new asteroid was discovered every year after that (except the wartime year 1945). Notable asteroid hunters of this early era were J. R. Hind, Annibale de Gasparis, Robert Luther, H. M. S. Goldschmidt, Jean Chacornac, James Ferguson, Norman Robert Pogson, E. W. Tempel, J. C. Watson, C. H. F. Peters, A. Borrelly, J. Palisa, the Henry brothers and Auguste Charlois.
In 1891, however, Max Wolf pioneered the use of astrophotography to detect asteroids, which appeared as short streaks on long-exposure photographic plates. This dramatically increased the rate of detection compared with previous visual methods: Wolf alone discovered 248 asteroids, beginning with 323 Brucia, whereas only slightly more than 300 had been discovered up to that point. Still, a century later, only a few thousand asteroids were identified, numbered and named. It was known that there were many more, but most astronomers did not bother with them, calling them "vermin of the skies".
Manual methods of the 1900s and modern reporting Edit
Until 1998, asteroids were discovered by a four-step process. First, a region of the sky was photographed by a wide-field telescope, or Astrograph. Pairs of photographs were taken, typically one hour apart. Multiple pairs could be taken over a series of days. Second, the two films of the same region were viewed under a stereoscope. Any body in orbit around the Sun would move slightly between the pair of films. Under the stereoscope, the image of the body would appear to float slightly above the background of stars. Third, once a moving body was identified, its location would be measured precisely using a digitizing microscope. The location would be measured relative to known star locations.
These first three steps do not constitute asteroid discovery: the observer has only found an apparition, which gets a provisional designation, made up of the year of discovery, a letter representing the week of discovery, and finally a letter and a number indicating the discovery's sequential number (example: 1998 FJ74).
The final step of discovery is to send the locations and time of observations to the Minor Planet Center, where computer programs determine whether an apparition ties together previous apparitions into a single orbit. If so, the object receives a catalogue number and the observer of the first apparition with a calculated orbit is declared the discoverer, and granted the honor of naming the object subject to the approval of the International Astronomical Union.
Computerized methods Edit
There is increasing interest in identifying asteroids whose orbits cross Earth's, and that could, given enough time, collide with Earth (see Earth-crosser asteroids). The three most important groups of near-Earth asteroids are the Apollos, Amors, and Atens. Various asteroid deflection strategies have been proposed, as early as the 1960s.
The near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros had been discovered as long ago as 1898, and the 1930s brought a flurry of similar objects. In order of discovery, these were: 1221 Amor, 1862 Apollo, 2101 Adonis, and finally 69230 Hermes, which approached within 0.005 AU of the Earth in 1937. Astronomers began to realize the possibilities of Earth impact.
Two events in later decades increased the level of alarm: the increasing acceptance of Walter Alvarez' hypothesis that an impact event resulted in the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, and the 1994 observation of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashing into Jupiter. The U.S. military also declassified the information that its military satellites, built to detect nuclear explosions, had detected hundreds of upper-atmosphere impacts by objects ranging from one to 10 metres across.
All of these considerations helped spur the launch of highly efficient automated systems that consist of Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and computers directly connected to telescopes. Since 1998, a large majority of the asteroids have been discovered by such automated systems. A list of teams using such automated systems includes:
- The Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) team
- The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) team
- The Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS) team
- The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS)
- The Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Objects Survey (CINEOS) team
- The Japanese Spaceguard Association
- The Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey (ADAS)
The LINEAR system alone has discovered 97,470 asteroids, as of September 18, 2008. Between all of the automated systems, 4711 near-Earth asteroids have been discovered including over 600 more than 1 km in diameter. The rate of discovery peaked in 2000, when 38,679 minor planets were numbered, and has been going down steadily since then (719 minor planets were numbered in 2007).
- Main article: Minor planet#Naming
A newly discovered asteroid is given a provisional designation (such as 2002 AT4) consisting of the year of discovery and an alphanumeric code indicating the half-month of discovery and the sequence within that half-month. Once an asteroid's orbit has been confirmed, it is given a number, and later may also be given a name (e.g. 433 Eros). The formal naming convention uses parentheses around the number (e.g. (433) Eros), but dropping the parentheses is quite common. Informally, it is common to drop the number altogether, or to drop it after the first mention when a name is repeated in running text.
The first few asteroids discovered were assigned symbols like the ones traditionally used to designate Earth, the Moon, the Sun and planets. The symbols quickly became ungainly, hard to draw and recognise. By the end of 1851 there were 15 known asteroids, each (except one) with its own symbol(s).
|Ceres||Variant symbol of Ceres Other sickle variant symbol of Ceres|
|2 Pallas||Old symbol of Pallas Variant symbol of Pallas|
|3 Juno||Old symbol of Juno Other symbol of Juno 30x20px|
|4 Vesta||Old symbol of Vesta Old planetary symbol of Vesta Modern astrological symbol of Vesta30x20px|
|13 Egeria||Never assigned.|
|14 Irene||"A dove carrying an olive-branch, with a star on its head," never drawn.|
Johann Franz Encke made a major change in the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch (BAJ, Berlin Astronomical Yearbook) for 1854. He introduced encircled numbers instead of symbols, although his numbering began with Astraea, the first four asteroids continuing to be denoted by their traditional symbols. This symbolic innovation was adopted very quickly by the astronomical community. The following year (1855), Astraea's number was bumped up to 5, but Ceres through Vesta would be listed by their numbers only in the 1867 edition. A few more asteroids (28 Bellona, 35 Leukothea, and 37 Fides) would be given symbols as well as using the numbering scheme. The circle would become a pair of parentheses, and the parentheses sometimes omitted altogether over the next few decades.
Until the age of space travel, objects in the asteroid belt were merely pinpricks of light in even the largest telescopes and their shapes and terrain remained a mystery. The best modern ground-based telescopes, as well as the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, can resolve a small amount of detail on the surfaces of the very largest asteroids, but even these mostly remain little more than fuzzy blobs. Limited information about the shapes and compositions of asteroids can be inferred from their light curves (their variation in brightness as they rotate) and their spectral properties, and asteroid sizes can be estimated by timing the lengths of star occulations (when an asteroid passes directly in front of a star). Radar imaging can yield good information about asteroid shapes and orbital and rotational parameters, especially for near-Earth asteroids.
The first close-up photographs of asteroid-like objects were taken in 1971 when the Mariner 9 probe imaged Phobos and Deimos, the two small moons of Mars, which are probably captured asteroids. These images revealed the irregular, potato-like shapes of most asteroids, as did subsequent images from the Voyager probes of the small moons of the gas giants.
In September 2005, the Japanese Hayabusa probe started studying 25143 Itokawa in detail and may return samples of its surface to earth. The Hayabusa mission has been plagued with difficulties, including the failure of two of its three control wheels, rendering it difficult to maintain its orientation to the sun to collect solar energy. Following that, the next asteroid encounters will involve the European Rosetta probe (launched in 2004), which flew by 2867 Šteins in 2008 and will buzz 21 Lutetia in 2010.
It has been suggested that asteroids might be used in the future as a source of materials which may be rare or exhausted on earth (asteroid mining), or materials for constructing space habitats (see Colonization of the asteroids). Materials that are heavy and expensive to launch from earth may someday be mined from asteroids and used for space manufacturing and construction.
In fiction Edit
- Main article: Asteroids in fiction
Asteroids and asteroid belts are a staple of science fiction stories. Asteroids play several potential roles in science fiction: as places which human beings might colonize; as resources for extracting minerals; as a hazard encountered by spaceships travelling between two other points; and as a threat to life on Earth due to potential impacts.
- ↑ At 10 metres and below, these rocks are generally considered to be meteoroids.
- ↑ Neptune also has a few known trojans, and these are thought to be actually be much more numerous than the Jovian trojans. However, they are often included in the trans-Neptunian population rather than counted with the asteroids.
- ↑ Ceres, originally considered a new planet, is the largest asteroid and is now classified as a dwarf planet. All other asteroids are now classified as small solar system bodies along with comets, centaurs, and the smaller TNOs.
See also Edit
| Look up asteroid in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- Asteroid belt
- Asteroid mining
- BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System)
- Category:Asteroid groups and families
- Category:Binary asteroids
- Centaur (planetoid)
- Dwarf planet
- Impact event
- List of asteroids
- List of asteroids named after important people
- List of asteroids named after places
- List of minor planets
- List of noteworthy asteroids
- Meanings of asteroid names
- Minor planet
- Minor Planet Center
- Near-Earth object
- Pronunciation of asteroid names
- Asteroid deflection strategies
- ↑ Beech, M.; Steel, D. I. (September 1995). "On the Definition of the Term Meteoroid". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 36 (3): 281–284, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995QJRAS..36..281B&db_key=AST&data_type=HTML&format=&high=44b52c369007834. Retrieved on 31 August 2006.
- ↑ "English Dictionary - Browsing Page P-44". HyperDictionary.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
- ↑ "Are Kuiper Belt Objects asteroids?", "Ask an astronomer", Cornell University
- ↑ "Asteroids and Comets", NASA website
- ↑ "Comet Dust Seems More Asteroidy" Scientific American, January 25, 2008
- ↑ "Comet samples are surprisingly asteroid-like", New Scientist, 24 January 2008
- ↑ 
- ↑ Are Kuiper Belt Objects asteroids?
- ↑ Questions and Answers on Planets, IAU
- ↑ "Three new planets may join solar system", New Scientist, 16 August 2006
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Kerrod, Robin (2000). Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors, Lerner Publications Co..
- ↑ 
- ↑ Baer, James; Steven R. Chesley (2008). "Astrometric masses of 21 asteroids, and an integrated asteroid ephemeris" (PDF). Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007) 100 (2008): 27–42. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9103-8, http://www.springerlink.com/content/h747307j43863228/fulltext.pdf. Retrieved on 11 November 2008.
- ↑ Pitjeva, E. V. (2005). "High-Precision Ephemerides of Planets—EPM and Determination of Some Astronomical Constants" (PDF). Solar System Research 39 (3): 184. doi:10.1007/s11208-005-0033-2, http://iau-comm4.jpl.nasa.gov/EPM2004.pdf.
- ↑ European Space Agency (April 4, 2002). "New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed". Press release. Retrieved on 21 February 2008.
- ↑ World Book at NASA
- ↑ Krasinsky, G. A.; Pitjeva, E. V.; Vasilyev, M. V.; Yagudina, E. I. (July 2002). "Hidden Mass in the Asteroid Belt". Icarus 158 (1): 98–105. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6837, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Icar..158...98K.
- ↑ Pitjeva, E. V. (2004). "Estimations of masses of the largest asteroids and the main asteroid belt from ranging to planets, Mars orbiters and landers". 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 18-25 July 2004, in Paris, France: 2014.
- ↑ Zappalà, V.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Cellino, A.; Farinella, P.; Froeschle, C. (1995). "Asteroid families: Search of a 12,487-asteroid sample using two different clustering techniques". Icarus 116: 291–314. doi:10.1006/icar.1995.1127, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Icar..116..291Z. Retrieved on 15 April 2007.
- ↑ Chapman, C. R.; Morrison, D.; Zellner, B. (1975). "Surface properties of asteroids: A synthesis of polarimetry, radiometry, and spectrophotometry". Icarus 25: 104–130. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(75)90191-8, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975Icar...25..104C.
- ↑ Tholen, D. J. (March 8-11, 1988). "Asteroid taxonomic classifications". Asteroids II; Proceedings of the Conference: pp. 1139-1150, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
- ↑ Bus, S. J.; Binzel, R. P. (2002). "Phase II of the Small Main-belt Asteroid Spectroscopy Survey: A feature-based taxonomy". Icarus 158: 146. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6856.
- ↑ McSween Jr., Harry Y. (1999). Meteorites and their Parent Planets (2nd edition ed.), Oxford University Press. ISBN 0521587514.
- ↑ Chapman, Mary G. (May 17, 1992). "Carolyn Shoemaker, Planetary Astronomer and Most Successful 'Comet Hunter' To Date". USGS. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
- ↑ Yeomans, Don. "Near Earth Object Search Programs". NASA. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
- ↑ "Minor Planet Discover Sites". Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
- ↑ "Unusual Minor Planets". Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
- ↑ "Numbered Minor Planet Discoveries by Year". Retrieved on 2008-10-29.
- ↑ Gould, B. A. (1852). "On the Symbolic Notation of the Asteroids". Astronomical Journal 2: 80. doi:10.1086/100212.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Hilton, James L. (2001-09-17). "When Did the Asteroids Become Minor Planets". Retrieved on 2006-03-26.
- ↑ Encke, J. F. (1854). "Beobachtung der Bellona, nebst Nachrichten über die Bilker Sternwarte". Astronomische Nachrichten 38: 143. doi:10.1002/asna.18540380907.
- ↑ Rümker, G.; Peters, C. A. F. (1855). "Name und Zeichen des von Herrn R. Luther zu Bilk am 19. April entdeckten Planeten". Astronomische Nachrichten 40: 373. doi:10.1002/asna.18550402405.
- ↑ Luther, R. (1856). "Schreiben des Herrn Dr. R. Luther, Directors der Sternwarte zu Bilk, an den Herausgeber". Astronomische Nachrichten 42: 107. doi:10.1002/asna.18550420705.
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